World War II was coming to an terminal, and the leaders of the United States, Soviet Union, and Great Britain came to the dialogue tabular array at Yalta in February 1945. The leaders of the states included Theodore Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, and Winston Churchill. As the masters of World War II in Europe, their undertaking was to do programs to convey about the unconditioned resignation of Germany. Besides, the Yalta Conference Alliess “ had to come up with a program to get the better of Japan in Asia and make up one’s mind how to split Germany and occupied states. ” ( Walker, pp.59-65 ) As Andrew Jackson said, “ To the masters belong the spoils. ” Although Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill did non cognize it, the determinations about district division would impact the universe for the following 40 old ages.
From the Yalta Conference, the United States and Soviet Union were now Alliess, but the friendly relationship lasted merely a short clip. President Roosevelt died shortly after Yalta, and Harry Truman became the new U.S. president. He had non been involved in the determinations made at Yalta. To stop the war with Japan, President Truman ordered the first atomic bomb bead on Hiroshima and took control of Asia, all without stating Soviet Russia. Russia thought that the United States was seeking to command all of Asia alternatively of merely stoping the war. As a consequence, Stalin moved rapidly to spread out into some of the Eastern European states, deriving power, and distributing Communism. At the same clip, the Soviet Union and the United States clashed over how to assist Europe retrieve from the dearth they were confronting in 1947. The atomic weaponries race was besides heating up because the Soviets were proving their ain atomic bomb and the horror of atomic war was a really existent fright. By 1948 the Soviet Union and the United States, were no longer Alliess, but become enemies, and would go on that manner throughout the 40 twelvemonth Cold War.
During the Cold War, an incident occurred that would prove the diplomatic negotiations of states and their leaders: the Cuban Missile Crisis. The United States and the Soviet Union came to the border of atomic war during the Crisis, but dialogues and tactical determinations, led by U.S. President John F. Kennedy ( JFK ) , saved the universe from what could hold been the 3rd universe war.
THE COLD WAR
It is of import to put the phase for this clip in history to understand what led up to the Cuban Missile Crisis. The struggles between the United States and the Soviets began in Europe, but by 1950 the agitation had spread throughout the universe. After World War II, the American program was to halt Japan from assailing its neighbours, and China was besides going a menace. The nationalist Chinese authorities and the Chinese Communists, lead by Mao Tse-tung, had been at war for many old ages. The Chinese Communists won, and so the Soviets took the side of Mao. The United States, Soviet Union, and China became involved in the Korean War in the 1950 ‘s and the Vietnam War in the 1960 ‘s. ( Walker pp.59-65 ) This clip in history is called the Cold War. This means the United States and the Soviets ne’er fought each other in a military conflict. The Cold War was dominated by the United States and Soviet Union, but Cuba was besides a subscriber during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
Six hebdomads after Dwight Eisenhower was elected president of the U.S. in 1952, Joseph Stalin died. Nikita Khrushchev, who had really different thoughts so Stalin, had taken control of the Russian Communist Government and became the new leader of the Soviet Union.
In 1959, Fidel Castro assumed power after subverting the Batista absolutism in Cuba. When the United States, under President Eisenhower, boycotted Cuba in 1960, Castro received aid from Khrushchev and the Soviet Union and the island of Cuba became a Communist state. Cuba is merely 90 stat mis off from Florida and the United States was afraid of a military onslaught by Castro that would be supported by the Soviets.
Besides In 1959, the United States had put Jupiter missiles in Turkey. The missiles were among many U.S. military installings throughout Europe trusting to intimidate the Soviet Union. Khrushchev saw this as a menace and wanted to put the same sort of missiles in Cuba. Castro approved of his program, and the Cuban Missile Crisis began.
In January, 1961, John F. Kennedy took office from President Eisenhower. At the clip, the United States and Soviet Union had severed diplomatic dealingss, and were in a atomic missile race. During his presidential run, JFK promised to shut the “ missile spread ” that the Soviets were thought to hold. He wanted to bring forth an equal or greater figure of missiles in the U.S. atomic armory. ( Shmoop Editorial Team, p.1 )
Shortly after JFK became president, he tried to subvert Castro. Alternatively of seeking to negociate with Castro, he chose military action. This struggle was called the Bay of Pigs. However, Castro defeated the Americans and the anti-Castro Cuban expatriates. ( Shmoop Editorial Team, p.2 ) The military onslaught on Castro by the Americans made Khrushchev really angry. As a consequence, he decided to strike back by constructing the Berlin Wall, which cut off the Americans from back uping Berlin. It divided the metropolis into East and West Berlin. East Berlin remained communist, and West Berlin remained Alliess with the United States.
Between July and October 1962, the Soviets began the military build-up and the building of the missile sites in Cuba. ( McAuliffe pp.7-8 ) On October 14, 1962, a U-2 undercover agent plane snapped exposure of the missile sites in Cuba. This proved that the Soviets were seting atomic missiles in Cuba. On October 16, 1962, President Kennedy was shown the images along with a memo sing the medium scope ballistic missiles saying:
“ Photography of 14 October 1962 has disclosed two countries in the Sierra Mountains about 50 n.m. west sou’-west of Havana which appear to incorporate Soviet MRBMs in the early phases of deployment. “ ( McAuliffe p.140 ) . See Appendix A.
13 DAYS OF CRISIS
JFK instantly brought together a group of his closest advisers, called the Executive Committee ( ExCom ) , and began run intoing in secret to make up one’s mind how to manage the state of affairs. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara gave him four options: “ Diplomatic dialogue, naval obstruction, air surveillance, or immediate air work stoppages to destruct the missile sites. ” ( Medina p. 14 )
For the first five yearss no one knew about the crisis except ExCom. Using representatives, JFK exchanged letters and conducted secret dialogues with Khrushchev. Many of JFK ‘s advisers strongly argued for air work stoppages. Others, including McNamara and JFK ‘s brother, Robert Kennedy, the U.S. Attorney General, urged him to suggest a encirclement. A Cardinal Intelligence Agency papers dated October 20, 1962, titled “ The Major Consequences of Certain U.S. Courses of Actions in Cuba ” outlined how the Soviet Union would react to a U.S. encirclement or military force.
“ Therefore any encirclement state of affairs would put the Soviets under no immediate force per unit area to take to react with force. They could trust on political agencies to oblige the U.S to abstain, and reserve a resort to force until the U.S. had really used force. ”
“ In the instance of U.S. usage of force against Cuban district, the likeliness of a Soviet response by force, either locally or for revenge elsewhere, would be greater than in the instance of encirclement. The Soviets would be placed automatically under great force per unit area to react… ” ( McAuliffe pp. 216-218 )
After sing his options, JFK decided to quarantine Soviet ships from come ining Cuba. He took ExCom ‘s advice and ordered a naval quarantine instead than a encirclement. The naval quarantine would let some transition of Soviet ships to Cuba, but a encirclement would intend a declaration of war.
On October 22, 1962, he addressed the American people on Television. He gave grounds of the missile sites in Cuba, and so he said that the United States would make a naval quarantine around Cuba until the missiles were dismantled and the Soviet Union stopped transporting any longer missiles to Cuba. Before he went onto Television, he wrote a missive to Khrushchev stating, “ I have non assumed that you or any other sane adult male would in this atomic age, intentionally plunge the universe into war which is crystal clear no state could winaˆ¦ ” ( John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & A ; Museum ) . See Appendix B.
On October 23, 1962, Khrushchev responded to Kennedy ‘s missive stating that the missiles in Cuba were merely in instance of an onslaught. JFK sent Robert Kennedy to run into with the Soviet Ambassador, Anatoly Dobrynin, to see if they could happen a peaceable manner to settle the crisis.
There were 13 out of 16 ships that turned back to Russia at the beginning of the quarantine. But on October 24, 1962, there were two ships and a pigboat at the quarantine line. When the U.S. sent out calls to turn back, all three of the vass headed back to Europe. The quarantine was working with no jobs.
For the following three yearss, there were letters traveling back and Forth between JFK and Khrushchev. In one missive, Khrushchev demanded that the U.S. take out the Jupiter missiles in Turkey and agree non to occupy Cuba. At the same clip, a U-2 undercover agent plane was shot down over Cuba. ExCom thought that Russia had ordered it and that the U.S. should react with military action. JFK refused to make it. Alternatively he sent his brother to run into with the Ambassador, once more. At the meeting, Robert Kennedy agreed to take out the missiles in Turkey if the Soviet Union would take the missiles out of Cuba.
On Sunday October 28, 1962, Khrushchev went on Soviet wireless to state the universe that all the missiles in Cuba would be dismantled and shipped back place. The U.S. lifted the quarantine and pledged to non occupy Cuba. The Cuban Missile Crisis had ended. ( John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & A ; Museum )
SUCCESSES, FAILURES, CONSEQUENCES
The major success of the Cuban Missile Crisis was the fact that atomic war was avoided. If JFK would hold ordered air work stoppages in Cuba, there most probably would hold been a atomic war between the Soviet Union and the United States. Besides JFK and Khrushchev showed that diplomatic negotiations could ensue in a peaceable colony if both sides were willing to compromise.
There were failures for both the United States and the Soviet Union. The United States lost the Jupiter missiles in Turkey, and the military security they brought being so near to the Soviet Union geographically. The U.S. besides failed to subvert the Castro authorities. The Soviets failed to hold a atomic missile site in Cuba, which angered Castro, and severed the relationship between the Soviet Union and Cuba.
The United States and the Soviet Union did larn a good lesson from the missile crisis. Because atomic arms are so unsafe, the two states signed a treaty to restrict the testing of atomic arms in 1963.
In the terminal, President John F. Kennedy ‘s determination to negociate a via media with Nikita Khrushchev may hold saved the universe from World War III. If he would hold ordered air work stoppages against Cuba and the Soviet Union as his advisers strongly recommended, who knows how different the universe might look today. The events of the Cuban Missile Crisis surely tested Kennedy ‘s judgement, cognition of his enemies, and his ability to take. He proved that a negotiated solution can take to a peaceable declaration.