The Republic Of Cuba History Essay


The Republic of Cuba is an island state in the Caribbean. Havana is the largest metropolis in Cuba and the countrys capital. After losing the Spanish-American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris in 1898 and harmonizing to this pact, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States for the amount of $ 20 million. Under this pact, Spain besides relinquished all claim of sovereignty over Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt, who had fought in the Spanish-American War and had some understandings with the independency motion, succeeded McKinley as U.S. President in 1901 and abandoned the pact. Cuba gained formal independency from the U.S. on May 20, 1902 as the Republic of Cuba but the new found independency came with a catch- under Cuba ‘s new fundamental law, the U.S. retained the right to step in in Cuban personal businesss and to oversee its fundss and foreign dealingss. Under the Platt Amendment, the U.S. leased the now controversial Guantanamo Bay naval base from Cuba.

Cuba had a moderately quiet being till the fortiess. Fulgencio Batista was democratically elected President in the elections of 1940 and his disposal carried out major societal reforms. Several members of the Communist Party held office under his disposal and established legion economic ordinances policies. An inflow of investing fuelled an economic roar which raised life criterions for all sections of society and created a comfortable in-between category in most urban countries. The spread between rich and hapless nevertheless, became wider and more obvious. Cuba had Latin America ‘s highest per capita ingestion rates of meat, veggies, cereals, cars, telephones and wirelesss. In 1958, Cuba was a comparatively well-advanced state by Latin American criterions, and in some instances by universe criterions. Cuban workers enjoyed some of the highest rewards in the universe. Cuba attracted more immigrants, chiefly from Europe, as a per centum of population than the U.S. The United Nations noted Cuba for its big in-between category.

On 2 December 1956 a party of 82 people on the yacht Granma landed in Cuba. The party, led by Fidel Castro, had the purpose of set uping an armed opposition motion in the state. Fidel Castro ‘s bid of the Cuban authorities was adamantly opposed by the United States at the clip, because Castro pledged commitment to communism and the Soviet Union. He took most of the wealth off from the upper and middle-class citizens, doing them to fly the state and those who did chiefly fled to the United States. The economic sciences of Cuba became more centralised and private schools were taken over by the authorities, it brought about the betterment of literacy, every bit good as improved sanitation and wellness.

At this point, the US authorities thought that the Cuban authorities was go againsting the human rights of the Cuban citizens as the authorities was doing most of the determinations. It felt that it had to make something to restrict this state of affairs and decided to enforce a trade trade stoppage on Cuba. It was foremost implemented in 1960 by the Eisenhower-Nixon disposal, the trade stoppage was merely a partial restraint on trade, excepting nutrient and medical specialty supplies, to the island. The trade stoppage, along with other actions in 1960, was an effort to destabilise Fidel Castro ‘s authorities power in Cuba. In 1961, an unsuccessful invasion of Cuban dirt by the United States called the Bay of Pigs added to the societal agitation between the U.S. and Castro ‘s Cuba.

The United States under the leading of John Kennedy added further limitations to the trade stoppage by criminalizing travel to Cuba. It besides banned any fiscal and commercial minutess with Cuba. After the Kennedy authorities, there were many changes to the trade stoppage but it was ne’er to the full abolished.

The impact of the trade stoppage on Cuban trade

Cuba was non greatly impacted by the trade stoppage imposed on it by the USA because it had the uninterrupted support of the former USSR and it served at one of its chief trade Alliess. However the autumn of the Soviet Union had a major impact on the trade scenario of Cuba. The state ‘s GDP dropped drastically over the following four old ages. Cuba was in desperate demand for new trading spouses and at this clip the USA decided to add excess force per unit area on Castro by adding another clause to the trade stoppage footings. This was in the signifier of amendment which prohibited all trade with Cuba by subordinates of US companies located outside the US and proposed surcease of assistance to any state that traded with Cuba. This did look to be a instead utmost measure and was seen as a despairing effort of the American authorities to subvert the Castro authorities. America had George Bush Sr. at the helm in 1992 and he continued the trade stoppage and passed another act that prohibited household remittals to Cuba along with other limitations.

Fidel Castro knew that the US would non turn over the trade stoppage in the close hereafter so he decided to look to Europe for assistance and after a few old ages he did pull off to acquire European support. The GDP of the state after a period of 4 old ages was get downing an upward move. Another ground for this tendency was that Cuba was progressively going self sufficient. They had drastically improved their agricultural green goods and managed to happen ways to increase their end product by utilizing autochthonal methods.

Cuba now manages to beginning their natural stuffs from Europe and Asia. Cuba has strong trading relationships with other Caribbean states and Canada besides is a large spouse. Castro at this point tried to contend back the American subjugation by seeking to press other states to set up their ain trade organisations free of US control. It was seen that during the hard yearss where Cuba lost its Russian ally, many other states like Canada, Argentina and Mexico exporting their green goods to Cuba. This makes it clear that the US is mostly entirely in its belief that the trade stoppage should remain and that it is in the benefit of the universe at big.

One would believe that with so much opposition from the remainder of the states, the US might yield and life the trade stoppage but what happened is rather opposite. In 1996, President Bill Clinton signed another jurisprudence into affect that imposed countenances on authoritiess, concerns or persons from any state who trade or invest in any former retentions in Cuba. It besides said that any natural stuff or goods made in Cuba would non come in USA and that visas would be denied to any individual who has a household member with trade links in Cuba. This jurisprudence was met with a batch of opposition- every member of the EU rejected it and the WTO considered it a misdemeanor of trade regulations.

This trade stoppage was imposed with merely one purpose and that was to take Fidel Castro from power. The trade stoppage has non succeeded in making this and it besides been observed that the trade stoppage has cost American husbandmans 1000000s of dollars in the signifier of exports every twelvemonth. It is difficult to happen grounds why the United states is non re set uping dealingss with Cuba as it can function as an of import trade spouse.

The US- Cuban dealingss clip line

The US- Cuban dealingss can be clearly understood by traveling through a clip line. We can see the assorted policies adopted by different authoritiess that came to power in the United States. It can be noticed that irrespective of who was in power, the trade stoppage was carried on from authorities to authorities. It was like the proverbial millstone around the cervixs of these authoritiess. Some authoritiess merely carried it on as a affair of rule but some others added major clauses to the trade stoppage thereby adding more limitations on Cuba.

1898: The United States declare war on Spain.

1898: US defeats Spain, which gives up all claims to Cuba and cedes it to the US.

1902: Cuba becomes independent with Tomas Estrada Palma as its president. But the Platt Amendment keeps the island under US protection and gives the US the right to step in in Cuban personal businesss.

1909: Jose Miguel Gomez becomes president following elections supervised by the US, but is shortly tarred by corruptness.

1912: US forces return to Cuba to assist set down black protests against favoritism.

1933: Gerardo Machado is overthrown in a putsch led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista.

1934: The US abandons its right to step in in Cuba ‘s internal personal businesss, revises Cuba ‘s sugar quota and alterations duties to favor Cuba.

1959: Castro leads a 9,000-strong guerilla ground forces into Havana, coercing Batista to fly. Castro becomes premier curate.

1960: All US concerns in Cuba are nationalised without compensation ; US breaks off diplomatic dealingss with Havana and imposes a trade trade stoppage in response to Castro ‘s reforms.

1961: US backs an stillborn invasion by Cuban expatriates at the Bay of Pigs ; Castro proclaims Cuba a Communist province and begins to ally it with the USSR.

1962: Cuban missile crisis ignites when, fearing a US invasion, Castro agrees to let the USSR to deploy atomic missiles on the island. The US released exposures of Soviet atomic missile silos in Cuba – triping a crisis which took the two world powers to the threshold of atomic war.

1980: Around 125,000 Cubans, many of them released inmates, flee to the US, when Castro temporarily lifted limitations.

1993: The US tightens its trade stoppage on Cuba, which introduces some market reforms in order to stem the impairment of its economic system. These include the legalization of the US dollar, the transmutation of many province farms into semi-autonomous co-operatives, and the legalization of limited single private endeavor.

1996: US merchandise trade stoppage made permanent in response to Cuba ‘s hiting down of two US aircraft operated by Miami-based Cuban expatriates.

1998: The US eases limitations on the sending of money to relations by Cuban American

2000: US House of Representatives approves the sale of nutrient and medical specialties to Cuba.

2001: US exports nutrient to Cuba for the first clip in more than 40 old ages after a petition from the Cuban authorities.

2002: Prisoners taken during US-led action in Afghanistan are flown into Guantanamo Bay, which is in Cuba, for question as al-Qaeda suspects.

2003: US President George Bush announces fresh steps designed to rush the terminal of communist regulation in Cuba, including fastening a travel trade stoppage to the island, checking down on illegal hard currency transportations, and a more robust information run aimed at Cuba. A new organic structure, the Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba, is created.

2004: President Castro announces a prohibition on minutess in US dollars, and imposes 10 % revenue enhancement on dollar-peso transitions.

July 2006: The US Commission for Assistance to a Free Cuba recommends an $ 80m fund to back up Cuba ‘s resistance and the deployment of US assistance one time a transitional authorities is in topographic point.

December 2006: The largest deputation from the US Congress to see Cuba since the 1959 revolution goes to Havana. Jeff Flake, a Republican congresswoman heading the 10-member bipartizan deputation, said he wanted to establish a “ new epoch in US-Cuba dealingss ” , but the group is denied a meeting with Raul Castro, the new president of Cuba.

Feb 2008: Fidel Castro announces he will non accept another term as president and Raul Castro officially takes over. Washington calls for free and just elections, and says its trade trade stoppage will stay.

May 2008: During the US presidential election run, Democratic rival Barack Obama tells Cuban exiles he will seek direct diplomatic negotiations with the Cuban authorities if elected. He says he will keep the trade stoppage but lift limitations on travel and directing money to Cuba.

December 2008: Latin American leaders run intoing in Brazil call on US President-elect Barack Obama to stop the trade stoppage when he takes office.

The present scene

The issue of the Embargo and it present significance is discussed by journalist Al Kamen in an article published in the Washington Post.1 He says that the half century old trade trade stoppage is one the one manus systematically losing importance and now merely serves as a symbol of something that was heatedly debated one time but on the other manus there still is unfavorable judgment faulting the US ‘ actions against Cuba. They say that the trade trade stoppage has helped Cuba is some ways as it has become the alibi for Cuba ‘s failures and although USA had imposed really rigorous limitations on Cuba, there are cases when these limitations are flaunted. For case, Panama sells US made goods to Cuba and yet once more, the two states are besides collaborating on certain other affairs like the navy base at Guantanamo and besides the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico where the two states had conducted joint exercisings.

Why would the US go back on its ain trade stoppage? This can be answered by the fact that Fidel Castro is systematically losing power in Cuba and so now universe leaders feel that the US and Cuba should carry on their traffics openly which would earn more support for Cuba and that this would besides assist Cuba in its way towards democracy.

Criticism for the trade stoppage

The trade stoppage has been badly criticized by many authoritiess, journalists and common people likewise. It has had an consequence on nutrient, H2O, medical specialty and other demands of the Cuban people. The trade stoppage has been held responsible for the eruption of many infective diseases in Cuba because the needed medical specialties are non available at that place. It has been observed that the trade stoppage has had a major impact on the physical well being of the Cuban citizens as the trade stoppage badly restricts the entry of nutrient, medical specialties and the flow of medical information into the state. Thereby, many diseases have erupted and prevailed in the state, which could hold been curtailed had the trade stoppage been partly removed. The many “ cruel ” Torahs passed by the United States have faced terrible unfavorable judgment peculiarly from the European and Canadian authoritiess. The European Parliament went in front and made it illegal for EU citizens to obey some of these Torahs. The trade stoppage has been in the favor of non American concern houses as they have non had to vie with US makers in Cuba and so will hold an upper manus over them if and when the encirclement is removed. The trade stoppage has faced terrible unfavorable judgment from spiritual leaders excessively. They say that the trade stoppage is in misdemeanor of human-centered rights and cause terrible economic adversities to the Cubans. Several spiritual leaders from around the universe have written to the US authorities inquiring them to take this Draconian economic encirclement.

However as every instance goes, there is a flipside. Some influential people are of the sentiment that the trade stoppage is in fact assisting the Castro brothers get a better clasp over the island state and so to foster their power and control, they will make everything in their power to maintain the trade stoppage traveling. The present Secretary of State of the United States even made a public remark that the United States is willing to hold treatments with the Cuban authorities sing the encirclement but it is the counter party that seems unwilling to negociate.

There was a batch of argument and guess that President Barack Obama would be the one to stop the 50 twelvemonth old trade trade stoppage imposed by the United States on Cuba2 but these hopes were dashed to the land when he extended the economic encirclement. He commented that widening the trade stoppage was in the involvements of the state. However, President Obama did win in taking the clause that forbids Cuban Americans from sing Cuba.

What lies in front?

The terminal to the trade stoppage does non look like a world anyplace in the close hereafter. In the US, it is hard for political leaders to hold a base for or against the trade stoppage. It is a democratic capitalist state and so anything that even seems remotely Communist is forbidden and Cuba remains communist in its ideals. The gross carelessness when it comes to the basic human rights of Cubans is another ground why the trade stoppage needs to travel. The state might be expeditiously run but the citizens do non acquire the rights that they deserve. Fidel Castro has built up his power in the island state and as can be imagined, he will non be willing to give it up easy. The United States have this as the pre pointer to negotiations with Cuba. The function of the media besides can non be ignored. They like to sensationalize and this was seen in the instance of Elian Gonzalez- a small male child who ended up in Florida seeking to get away from Cuba.3 This instance was blown out of proportion and was flashed over all the intelligence channels and newspapers. The two authoritiess must work on their dialogue accomplishments and seek to work out some treaties that would easy but certainly amend the dealingss. There are many ways in which the Cuban economic system can profit from the terminal of this trade stoppage. The Cuban husbandmans can derive from exports, touristry can be promoted, the flow of medical specialties and nutrient can be renewed, instruction chances can be brought out which will decidedly profit the population.

These can be the little stairss that the US has to take to convey about fruitful dealingss with Cuba and such a move will decidedly earn the state some regard from the assorted planetary organic structures that are dead against the trade trade stoppage. This can besides function as the launch tablet for US to better dealingss with many of the other states that require the aid of this ace power.