The Malaysian Healthcare System Health And Social Care Essay

Most of us have been exposed to the Malaysian healthecare system one manner another, be it, private clinics or authorities 1s, even infirmaries at times. The Malaysian health care system can be said to dwell of a wide umbrella construction that encompasses the proviso of health care to both urban, non to mentioni besides, the rural parts of our darling state. In general nevertheless, it can be classified under the populace or private sector, which is really obvious in our state. The populace sector which is backed financially by the authorities, constitutes a humongous 80 % of the entire wellness services in our state, the staying 20 % , gratuitous to state, is provided by the private sector.

The anchor, or in other words, footing of Malaysian Healthcare, is formed on the foundations of the complementary web of private and authorities clinics together with infirmaries that are available to the populace. Each province of our state have their several General Hospitals located in the province ‘s capital. District infirmaries will be present in most administrative territories. Health Centers ( Klinik Kesihatan ) will supplement these territory infirmaries. Under Health Centers, are the Rural Clinics ( Klinik Desa ) .

Comparing the health care system in Malaysia with other first universe states such as the United States of America and the United Kingdom, the health care system in Malaysia is to a great extent subsidized by our authorities, in the aforementioned first universe states, intervention costs can rocket sky high. Our authorities has made certain that the monetary value the people pay for intervention from the populace sector his sensible and low-cost to the bulk of citizens. At least 5 % of the national budget is allocated to healthcare system outgos.

Our authorities has listed the 8 elements of primary health care. To carry through the 8 Elementss, they provide these services as follows:

Maternal and Child Healthcare

Outpatient services

Basic Dental Health

Nutrition

Environmental sanitation

Essential drugs

Control of Catching Diseases

Health Education

Lab services

Organization of Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelanduk

Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelanduk is located in the province of Negeri Sembilan, Port Dickson to be even more specific. There are 12 small towns in the Jimah District country, and this Klinik Kesihatan is located at that place. On the 29th of July 1986, operations begin to travel on in this clinic and the clinic has served as major Centre for the intervention and recovery of the Nipponese Encephalities and Nipah virus infected patients. The inoculation for the deathly Nipah virus. There are subordinate clinics such as Klinik Desa Chuah under the legal power of Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelanduk that provides the medical services such as maternal and kid health care services.

Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelanduk is besides located within the radius of 30 kilometer from the Tuanku Jaafar Hospital and the Port Dickson Hospital in Negeri Sembilan

Oganisation Chart

Community nurse Public Health helper U19 ( 6 ) U17 ( 1 )

Wholly there are 33 staff workers.

Klinik Kesihatan Mantin is headed by an Administrative Doctor, who is straight responsible to the District Health Officer. Under the Administrative Doctor are two stations, which are the Assistant Medical Officer, and the Head Nurse. The Head Nurse is an important figure, there are 7 constituents of the staff straight under her, which are the Assistant Pharmaceutical officer Medical Lab Technician, Assistant Medical officer, Senior Community nurse, Public Health nurse, Health nurse, and the Trained nurse. Under the Senior Community nurse would be the Community nurse, and the Public Health helper.

Components of Health Services.

The Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok has 6 chief sections which are the Outpatient, Maternal and Child Health, Pharmacy, Laboratory, Dental Health, and Emergency Department. The outpatient section is by far the biggest service rendered to the populace and can be broken down in the diagram below

.

The outpatient section consists of the diabetic, high blood pressure, mental wellness, healthy adolescent and out patient clinic. The out patient processs of obtaining medical services is shown in the diagram on the left.

The outpatient section in other words, maps as the primary health care clinic. It is headed by an Administrator physician ( Medical Office ) . The out patient clinic sees an estimated 100 patients every individual twenty-four hours. And the caput nurse and adjunct medical officers will make their uttermost best to transport out their several duties to help the Administrator physician in any responsibilities relevant to them.

The Maternal and Child Health Clinic is headed together by the decision maker physician and the caput nurse. This helps in cut downing the work load of the decision maker physician. The caput nurse together with the staff under her will such as community nurses, will carry on frequent place visits and supply prenatal check-ups for pregnant adult females within that country.

Diagram on the left shows a brief sum-up of Maternal and Child Health services.

The Laboratory Department, which is headed by a medical lab technician. The medical research lab is non every bit good equipped as those major infirmaries, therefore the Laboratory Department of Klinik Kesihatan will join forces with the Laboratory Department of the Tuanku JaafarHospital such as urine protein trials, thyroid map trials, lipid profile and nephritic map trials.

Diagram on left shows a brief sum-up of services provided by the Laboratory Department of Bukit Pelandok.

Another of import constituent of Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok. After confer withing the medical officers, patients who are eligible for prescriptions, will hold their medicine prescriptions handed to the adjunct pharmaceutical officer, who will so provide the patients and inform them of the use of the medicine.

Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok besides has a dental section, the dental maps under the same operational hours of the clinic. Tooth extraction, filling, grading, whitening are provided services. Major unwritten surgeries nevertheless would be referred to the Tuanku Jaafar and Port Dickson infirmaries.

Last but non least, there is besides an Emergency Department, this section is equipped to manage minor exigencies, it besides has an ambulance and paramedics.

The saloon chart on the left shows the ethnicity of the entire figure of patients in 2010.

Servicess Provided by Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok.

I have already stated the assorted sections of Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok in the Components of Health Services provided subdivision.

The sections of this clinic provides a broad scope of intervention modes, therefore leting the clinic to guarantee that patients enjoy effectual intervention.

The outpatient section is the most busy of all the sections. The intents of the outpatient section are to supply immediate intervention to patients who are acutely or inveterate ill, and besides to move as a control for the clinic against morbific disease such as Tuberculosis. Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok besides provides the Tuberculosis Direct Observed Therapy Short-course intervention.

Traveling on to the Maternal and Child Health attention section, the clinic chiefly focuses on prenatal, antenatal, non to bury postpartum attention of both the female parent and fetus. There is a mark to be achieved, which is the mark of zero maternal deceases. They are carry throughing this mark in a certain figure of ways which include immediate diagnosing and intervention of preeclampsia, immunisation of the female parent and frequent antenatal check-ups up until the estimated bringing day of the month. There are besides activities scheduled by the section for handicapped kids on a instance by instance footing.

For the Laboratory Department, their chief function is to enable the clinician in carry oning relevant research lab surveies that will assist in the diagnosing and direction of the disease. The Laboratory Department allows the clinic to have consequences much faster compared to the clip it takes to have consequences from a nearby infirmary.

Some common trials conducted by this section are as follows:

Blood trials for HbA1c, lipid profile, thrombocyte count, ESR

Light microscopy on blood vilifications to observe blood upsets such as anaemia, or parasites in the blood vilifications.

Urinalysis for toxins, glycosuria, urea and ruddy blood cell dramatis personaes.

Pregnancy trial

Other more intricate and complicated trials such as FTA-Abs for treponema globus pallidus, would necessitate samples to be obtained and sent to the Tuanku Ja’afar or Port Dickson General Hospital for processing.

The pharmaceutics is responsible for distributing medicine in safe and legal sums to patients, and to rede patients on practising conformity in taking their medicines. Patients will besides be counseled on the side effects and contraindications of the drugs.

Contemplations

From detecting the complex construction of functions and duties held by the different constituents and sections of Klinik Kesihatan Bukit Pelandok, it brings to illume the huge value of this peculiar clinic in the proviso and primary health care of the occupants in Bukit Pelandok.

Many of the patients who visit this clinic are of the Malay ethnicity, I for peculiar, am one who is non fluid in Bahasa Melayu compared to the English linguistic communication. I learnt that this could be a barrier in pass oning with patients who can merely talk the Malay linguistic communication. I have decided that I will brush up my Bahasa Melayu, and maestro a few of the conversational footings so that following clip I would be able to pass on even better in the Malay linguistic communication.

This clinic visit has taught me that every constituent of the staff has a portion to play, and has managed to learn me priceless lessons of going a squad participant.

Section II: Household Survey

Introduction

Bukit Pelanduk is most celebrated for the Nipah eruption. Prior to the eruption, during the 90 ‘s, it contain the largest hog farming communities in Southeast Asia. In between October 1998 and May 1999, that was the darkest clip in Bukit Pelanduk recent history, there were about 104 deceases out of 258 instances of Nipah infected patients.

Towards the Chinese new twelvemonth in the center of March 1999, a hog breeder from Sungai Nipah, which is located South of seremban, died all of a sudden triping monolithic terror. About half the population of the small town migrated elsewhere out of fright towards the slayer disease. The virus spread like a ramping wildfire out of control doing many hog husbandmans non to advert villagers to abandon their farms and places in terror. By March 1999, Bukit Pelanduk had become something like a shade town due to the mass hegira.

The ministry of wellness so decided to raise the degree of this epidemic to the degree of national crisis. A Cabinet-level undertaking force was set up, and so headed by the so Deputy Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. What was confounding was that at that clip, the authorities adamantly insisted that it was right in labeling the disease as Nipponese Encephalities, nevertheless both husbandmans and scientists opposed this theory and suspected that it was a different strain or virus wholly.

The virus so spread to Kampung Sawah, Kampung India and even Sepang. Farmers consulted temple mediums, and quickly put up ruddy streamers at the mediums ‘ advice in and around their houses to guard off the angel of decease.

After months of futility in handling the eruption as Nipponese Encephalitis, the authorities eventually decided to name in the Department of Medical Micribiology of University of Malaysa ‘s medical module for aid in covering with this disease. Dr Chua Kaw Bing was the physician who managed to insulate the virus in five yearss. 12 yearss subsequently, it was identified as a new Hendra-like virus and tagged as Nipah.

Over one million hogs, or half our contry ‘s pig population at that clip, were culled. Around 36000 ppl suffered unemployment due to the devastation of farms. Harmonizing to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, it is estimated near to RM 500 million of hog production was lost.

Today, hog agriculture is no longer allowed lawfully in Bukit Pelanduk. Since the eruption, the immature had drifted elsewhere in hunt of a life. Merely the old remain, to populate out their yearss.

Aims

The aims of the survey are

To depict the societal demographic of community

To place vectors and plagues

To grok wellness seeking behavior

To find the lodging conditions

To understand nutrient, nutrition and wellness consciousness

To find working environment

And to find the cognition, attitude and patterns on dandy fever among the community.

Methodology ( Methods and Materials )

The family group dwelling of 15 members. We met up before traveling to Bukit Pelandok in IMU to discourse our schemes and to be after in front before the Bukit Pelandok visit. Household inquiries and aims for the Bukit Pelandok visit was meticulously discussed and great attention was poured into the formation of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was in the English linguistic communication and pretested to do certain no disagreements arose when certain footings were used. After infinite hours of treatment we eventually agreed on a descriptive cross-sectional survey upon the mark population which were the occupants of Bukit Pelandok.

Due to obvious clip restraints, non to advert logistical 1s, the art of the convenience sampling technique was called to the bow with families being identified as the basic unit of due analysis. The study was conducted over 2 on the job yearss around the 7 lodging countries within a five kilometre radius which are as follows

Kampung Sawah

Kampung PachitanA

Kampung JawaA

Kampung Cina

Kampung IndiaA

Rumah Rakyat Taman Bayan

Most of us were good familiar in English every bit good as the Malay linguistic communication, and we were able to interpret all of the inquiries confidently into Mandarin every bit good. As names and specific place references were non included as portion and package of the questionnaire, we managed to obtain consent of participants every bit good as vouching their namelessness and confidentiality of their responses in the study.

To expose the consequences in an attractive and efficient mode, descriptive statistics were employed in the preparation of the consequences which would be put under the consequences chapter. Formulation of consequences in this study was done with the SPSS 18 plan together with the dedication of the informations entry and analysis squad.

The followers is a brief sum-up of the survey:

Study location: Bukit Pelandok, Negeri Sembilan

Study period: 17-18 February 2011.

Entire population of Port Dickson: 90 000 people

Target population: Community in the 7 countries mentioned above.

Sampling technique: Convenience sampling technique

Sample size: 234

Basic unit of analysis: Family

Study design: Descriptive cross sectional survey

Survey instruments: Pre-coded and pretested questionnaires in the English linguistic communication via face to confront verbal interviews. Data entry and analysis: SPSS 18

Operational definitions

Consequences

Socio Demography

Feature

Mean ( S.D. )

N

%

No. of Members in Family

1-5

6-10

11 and above

5.43 ( 2.356 )

135

89

10

57.7

38.0

4.3

Religion

Muslimism

Christian religion

Buddhism

Hindooism

Others

149

5

58

18

4

63.7

2.1

24.8

7.7

1.7

Table 2.1: Socio-Demography of Respondents in Bukit Pelandok ( n = 234 )

Figure 2.1

In Table 2.1 it shows that most of the occupants are Muslims, 149. This corresponds to Calculate 2.1 that shows the highest per centum of Malay occupants, 64.1 % . Bukit Pelandok has a bulk of Malay occupants.

Figure 2

Figure 2.2 shows that respondents with secondary school instruction are the highest at 53.8 per centum. Those who had perfectly no instruction whatsoever stands at 9.8 % .

Gender

Age Group ( old ages )

Literacy Level

Literate

Semi Literate

Illiterate

Male

& lt ; 30

14 ( 93.3 % )

1 ( 6.7 % )

0 ( 0 % )

30-50

16 ( 55.2 % )

10 ( 34.5 % )

3 ( 10.3 % )

& gt ; 50

20 ( 57.1 % )

10 ( 28.6 % )

5 ( 14.3 % )

Entire

50

21

8

Female

& lt ; 30

24 ( 88.9 % )

2 ( 7.4 % )

1 ( 3.7 % )

30-50

65 ( 77.4 % )

12 ( 14.3 % )

7 ( 8.3 % )

& gt ; 50

19 ( 43.2 % )

16 ( 36.4 % )

9 ( 20.5 % )

Entire

108

30

17

Table 2.2: Literacy degree of respondents harmonizing to age group and gender in Bukit Pelandok ( n=234 )

Table 2.2 above shows the literacy degree of respondents. For the male population, 50 out of 79 males,63.29 % are literate whereas for the female population, 108 out of 155, 69.68 % are literate. Womans have a higher literacy degree than work forces it appears.

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.3 shows that the most common business of respondents are homemakers, 108 out of 234, or 46.15 % . the 2nd most common business is the skilled manual/clerical which stands at 38 respondents, or 16.24 % . Merely 5 of the respondents were pupils, stand foring merely a meager 2.14 % .

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.4 shows that the most of the respondents have a monthly family income of around RM 1000-RM1999 which was 84 out of 234, 35.90 % . There were 11 respondents, 4.70 % who were of the highest income bracket ( & gt ; RM 5000 )

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.5 above shows that bulk houses in Bukit Pelandok are of the degage type, 65.81 % .

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.6 shows that 53.2 % of houses are made out of brick whereas 39.5 % and 7.3 % are made out of brick and wood, and wood severally.

Table 2.3: The Housing Characteristics of Respondents in Bukit Pelandok ( n = 234 )

Table 2.3 shows that 97.9 % of the houses have 24 hr handiness of electricity whereas 98.7 % have handiness of piped H2O supply. Garbage aggregation installation was low as merely 46.2 % of the houses had that installation. Availability of a proper sewerage system was high excessively at 85.9 % .

Features

N

%

Presence of Vectors / Pests In or Around House

Yes

No

194

40

82.9

17.1

Any Stairss to Get the better of Problem?

Yes

No

156

78

66.7

33.3

Table 2.4: Presence of Vectors and Plagues in Bukit Pelandok ( n = 234 )

194 out of 234 respondents, 82.9 % replied in the positive towards the presence of vectors/pests in or around the house. However merely 156 out of 234 respondents, 66.7 % took any stairss to get the better of that peculiar job.

Feature

N

%

Any Knowledge About Healthy Lifestyle?

Yes

No

183

51

78.2

21.8

Any Balanced Diet?

Yes

No

205

29

87.6

12.4

Anyone in Family with Chronic Disease? ( Diabetes, Hypertension, CVD )

Yes

No

128

106

54.7

45.3

Anyone in Household that Smokes?

Yes

No

141

93

60.3

39.7

Exercise at least 30 Minutess?

Yes, 3 & gt ; times per hebdomad

Yes, & lt ; 3 times per hebdomad

No

50

48

136

21.4

20.5

58.1

Table 2.6: Food, Nutrition and Health of Respondents in Bukit Pelandok ( n = 234 )

A high per centum of respondents have a cognition of a healthy life style, 183 out of 234 which is 78.2 % . However there were household members among more than half of the respondents, 141 which was 60.3 % that smoked. 136 of the respondents, which was 58.1 % did non exercising at least 30 proceedingss per hebdomad.

Feature

N

%

Any Knowledge of Whereabouts of Nearest Clinic?

Yes

No

231

3

98.7

1.3

If Sick, Medical Assistance Sought?

Yes

No

219

15

93.6

6.4

Where Medical Assistance is Sought After

Government Clinic

Private Clinic

Traditional Medicine

Others

165

63

3

3

70.5

26.9

1.3

1.3

Table 2.7: Health Seeking Behaviour of Respondents at Bukit Pelandok ( n = 234 )

231 out of 234 respondents did cognize where the nearest wellness clinic was, a 98.7 % bulk of them. 219, 93.7 % of them claim they will seek medical aid if ill. 70.5 % would take the authorities clinic for medical aid whereas 26.9 % will travel to seek medical aid from a private clinic.

Discussion

From Figure 2.3, the saloon chart shows that a immense figure of respondents are homemakers. This is because the clip we carried out the study was during office working hours. Hence most respondents who were the most likely to be at place during this period of clip tend to be homemakers.

From Table 2.3 more than half of respondents claim that they do non bask proper refuse aggregation privileges. When we asked more about refuse disposal patterns in that country, we found out that approximately one time a hebdomad, trash is brought to a topographic point designated by the small town head ( ketua kampung ) . There the trash is either burnt or buried. If villagers feel that this is a complicated procedure, they would fire or bury their ain trash in their ain backyards.

From Figure 2.4, the bulk of respondent ‘s household income can be appreciated to be below the RM 2000 grade. Most of the occupants of this country belong to the skilled/ unskilled manual field of profession as stated in the operational definitions, hence their income is lower.

Restrictions

While carry oning the survey, the study squad realized that we ran into several restrictions. That was inevitable. And we will name it down below.

The first restriction encountered by our squad was the coverage in the country of our survey. A limited country makes it hard for any survey to be efficaciously correlated and to let for generalisations to be made.

Certain inquiries in the study were non specific for respondents such as the consciousness of occupation related hazards. If the caput of family is non at that place to reply the questionnaire, the respondent might non be able to give a really accurate reply. Therefore certain decisions about the population of Bukit Pelandok could non be accurately derived.

There were fluctuations between the manner interviewers would inquire the inquiries. Hence there might be a little disagreement between accounts of inquiries and replies from one interviewer to another. This means that the standardised apprehension of inquiries by respondents would hold been somewhat affected.

The dependability of the information provided by the respondents is really difficult to verify besides. We depend on true replies and had no concrete manner to formalize whatever the respondent answered. There were cases besides where non responses were encountered.

During the study there were besides noticeable linguistic communication barriers between interviewers and respondents. There was an case where an Indian lady could merely pass on good in Mandarin, therefore the Malay interviewers would hold had a existent hard clip if non for his Mandarin-speaking spouse.

Decision

Bukit Pelandok is an country where the occupants put more religion in western medical specialty and most of them will seek medical intervention and advice from the Government Health Clinic. Local governments need to gripe up their services and better refuse aggregation installations among this country to forestall air pollution which consequences from unfastened combustion.

Contemplations

I feel that this undertaking has taught me some really of import lessons and even practical accomplishments, for illustration, in the entrance and preparation of graphs and tabular arraies by the SPSS 18 plan. This will assist me in my future calling as a medical physician in the universe of medical presenting, instruction and acquisition.

This undertaking besides gave me an experience of carry oning a family study together with my batch couples, we learnt how to depute and transport out our several duties as a squad. We besides managed to larn from our wise mans on how to ease this type of family study research.

Section III-Research Report

Abstraction

The aims of this research study conducted were to look into the societal position of the community and the cognition, attitude and patterns ( KAP ) on dandy fever among rural communities in Bukit Pelandok, Negeri Sembilan. Convenient sampling was used as clip was a major restricting factor. 234 and 250 people participated in the family and research study severally. Participants age were 18 old ages old and above, had the ability to discourse and pass on in the Malay, English, and Mandarin linguistic communication, resided for good in the country, and keeping a Malayan citizenship. In our study, we used a pretested, precoded, and good structured questionnaire in the English linguistic communication for informations aggregation via a face to confront interview with participants.

Introduction

Harmonizing to the WHO, the Dengue virus is transmitted through infected Aedes mosquitos with any individual one of four dandy fever viruses when it bites a human being. This virus is more prevailing in the tropical and sub-tropical countries on Earth. After an morbific bite, symptoms start showing within the following 3-14 yearss. As the name dandy fever febrility implies, it is a feverish unwellness that affects worlds in all phases of life be it infants, immature kids or grownups.

The symptoms present with a broad scope from a mild febrility, to an immobilizing high febrility, which is normally accompanied by terrible concerns, musculus, joint hurting and the occasional turn of roseolas. Up to the present twenty-four hours, unhappily, there are still no specific antiviral medical specialties to conflict dandy fever. Hydration is of extreme importance when pull offing a patient with dandy fever febrility. Aspirin or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are non recommended for the intervention of dandy fever febrility.

The most widely feared complication is the dandy fever haemorrhagic febrility which is accompanied with febrility, abdominal hurting, hemorrhage and emesis. It is potentially deadly and normally this complication affects kids. Prompt clinical diagnosing and punctilious clinical direction by experient physicians and nurses normally increase the rate of endurance of patients.

Over the past decennary, dandy fever has emerged as one of the most common mosquito-borne viral disease among worlds. On a planetary graduated table, an estimated 2.5 billion people reside in countries where the dandy fever viruse can be easy transmitted. From a geographical point of position, the spread of both the vectors ( Aedes mosquito ) and the dandy fever viruses has led to a revival globally of an epidemic dandy fever febrility. Together with this epidemic, there is outgrowth of the dandy fever hemorrhagic febrility ( DHF ) in the past one-fourth of the century.

The chief vector of dandy fever is the Aedes aegyptii?? there are four different but related viruses that cause dandy fever. The recovery from infection by one type will supply womb-to-tomb unsusceptibility merely against that peculiar serotype. In other words, it means a human being can be infected by another serotype of dandy fever virus for a subsequent clip.

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever was foremost identified during the 1950s in the Philippines and Thailand when those two states experienced dengue epidemics. Around 1970, approximately nine states had witnessed the DHF epidemic and continues to lift in our present twenty-four hours. All four dandy fever viruses are endemic in the Americas and Asia and has become one of the prima causes of hospitalization and mortalities among kids in a few of their states.

Until now, vector control is the most widely used method for the dandy fever and DHF bar. Broad research on dandy fever vaccinums are still being conducted.

Literature Review.

A figure of literature reappraisals provided me with a really ready to hand usher to the socio-demography and KAP sing dandy fever among the community of Bukit Pelandok, Negeri Sembilan. Since I had limited clip to carry on the research, the literature reviews gave me an overview and acted as a stepping rock to acquiring the research study together. Even for professionals, literature reappraisals are utile studies that maintain them updated about what is current in their field.

4 diaries from the cyberspace and on-line diary communities were reviewed before composing this study. This included surveies on KAP among the grownup population in Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar. The quality of the diaries was simply acceptable as most of them used convenience sampling. Merely one diary used a transverse sectional multistage sampling, this was the diary sing Dengue-related Knowledge among Caregivers in Myanmar.

From these diaries, the group carry oning the research managed to ticket tune the inquiries in the questionnaire that was used so that the replies would be helpful and enlightening.

Harmonizing to the diary by Dr Farizah Hairi, out of all of the 200 respondents surveyed in Kuala Kangsar, merely one had ne’er heard of dandy fever. And the chief beginning of information came from the telecasting or wireless. 88.5 % of the of the respondents thought that the cause of dandy fever was mosquitoes whereas merely 2.5 % knew it was the dandy fever virus to be exact. Out of these 200 respondents, merely 91 could call Aedes as the type of mosquito that could convey the dandy fever virus.

The cognition on the Aedes mosquito was rather hapless. Merely 25 per centum of the respondents were able to advert that covering the stored H2O as a bar method. The good intelligence was that 192 ( 96 % ) of the respondents understood that presence of Aedes larvae in their abode was against the jurisprudence. The pattern of dandy fever control, the most common signifiers of bar were utilizing mosquito spirals together with insect powders. Majority of respondents ( 96 % ) did see the dandy fever virus as a really serious disease. All of the 200 respondents stated that they would seek intervention if they were infected with dandy fever. Out of the 200, 192 which is a big proportion felt that bar was better than remedy.

90.5 % of the respondents support programmes or activities which are organized by the wellness governments targeted at the riddance of Aedes mosquitoes. 91 % of respondents excessively felt it was justified to penalize those guilty of harboring Aedes larvae in their abode. Based on the type of hiting system used which was described in the methodological analysis of that peculiar diary, 68.5 % of respondents possessed good cognition of dandy fever and Aedes, whereas 91.5 % had a positive attitude towards dandy fever control. What was let downing was that merely 51.5 % of respondents really adopted steps to forestall and command dandy fever and its vector.

Research Question

The followers is the chief research inquiry that all the inquiries in the questionnaire are assisting to reply.

What is the current degree of cognition, attitudes & A ; patterns for bar of the Dengue virus among the semi-urban community?

Aims

General aim

To measure the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Dengue among the Bukit Pelanduk community.

Specific Aims:

To find the degree of cognition of the local communities on Dengue

To measure the attitude of the local communities towards Dengue

To depict the patterns taken by the local community to forestall Dengue infection

Methodology

For the KAP of dandy fever research study, we used a cross-sectional survey in Bukit Pelandok. Type of trying used was convenience sampling.

The sample size of the survey was targeted at 250, we managed to hit that grade.

A pre-tested and good structured questionnaire on KAP of Dengue was used.

The family study was carried out within the scope of a 5 kilometer radius around the Bukit Pelanduk Health Clinic which included

-Kampung Chuah

-Kampung Sawah

-Kampung Pachitan

-Kampung Cina

-Rumah Rakyat

-Taman Bayan

From the 14th to the 16th of February 2011, we did some brainstorming to finalize the subject and inquiries. After that we sent the questionnaires for printing. 2 members of the group were sent to Bukit Pelandok to look into out the country before the twenty-four hours we went to carry on the research.

We so had to split find the standards of interviewees which would be fit for choice to reply the questionnaires. The standards the interviewees must carry through is that they be above 18 old ages old, a occupant of that family, and a Malayan citizen.

Our questionnaire had 4 chief constituents which included socio-demographics, cognition, attitude and patterns.

The medium used to carry on the interview were the Malay, English, and Mandarin linguistic communication.

On the 17th to 18th of February 2011, we proceeded to the executing of the research survey. We divided the research group into 13 braces. On the 1st twenty-four hours, we covered countries within walking distance, which was every bit far as up to Kampung Cina and Kampung Sawah.

The 2nd twenty-four hours, we were dropped off by group members who had autos and managed to cover farther countries every bit far as up to Taman Bayan and Chuah.

As like the old family study, there was a cardinal accent placed on obtaining consent from respondents of the study every bit good as keeping their namelessness and confidentiality of any of their responses to the study.

The descriptive statistics plan, SPSS 18, was employed in the preparation of the consequences of the study. The SPSS 18 greatly helped in informations entry together with analysis. A P-value of less than 0.05 was used to turn out the cogency of the collected information unless otherwise stated.

The marking system used is as follows.

Knowledge 10 critical inquiries a‰? 7 right GOOD cognition

Attitude 6 critical inquiries a‰? 4 Yes GOOD attitude

Practice 7 critical inquiries a‰? 4 Yes GOOD pattern

There were some protocols that we followed to cut down prejudice or mistake while carry oning the interview. We did our best to avoid implicative inquiries, and the questionnaire was pretested among our ain group members. There was a briefing held to convey the standardisation of oppugning. House allotments were done to forestall overlap and we tried our best to extended coverage of Bukit Pelandok. Our group besides double checked the SPSS informations after input.

Consequences

Socio Demographic informations

Gender

Figure 3.1 shows the gender of respondents.60.4 % and 39.6 % were female and male severally out of 250 respondents.

Age group

Figure 3.2 shows the age group of the respondents, a bulk, 40.4 % were in-between aged.

Ethinicity

Figure 3.3 shows the

Malay ethnicity is

59.6 % , the bulk.

Figure 3.4 shows the instruction degree or respondents, secondary school instruction degree was the commonest among respondents which was at 58.4 % .

Knowledge on Dengue

Beginning of information

Figure 3.5 shows us that the telecasting plays the biggest function in conveying intelligence about dandy fever to the populace

Appraisal of Respondents ‘ Knowledge

Figure 3.6 shows most of the respondents are able to call the type of mosquito which transmits nevertheless most of them do non cognize that the cause of dandy fever is the dandy fever virus.

Common Symptoms of Dengue

Figure 3.7 shows that to the respondents, febrility is the most common symptom to them at 46.8 % .

Common engendering site of mosquito

Figure 3.8 shows that 46.8 % of the respondents are able to reply right when asked what are the common genteelness sites of the Aedes mosquito.

Degree of cognition of respondents in Bukit Pelandok about Dengue

Figure 3.9 shows that based on the standards used to cipher the degree of cognition, 59.2 % had good cognition whereas 40.8 % had hapless cognition.

Attitude and Awareness toward Dengue

Figure 3.10 shows that 97.6 % of the respondents will seek intervention if they suspect that they have come down with dandy fever.

Duty in the control of the Aedes mosquito population.

Figure 3.11 shows that 57.9 % felt that the duty belong to both the authorities and the respondents themselves. Merely a meager 7.6 % of the respondents felt that the authorities was wholly responsible for commanding the Aedess mosquito population.

Attitude towards Dengue Prevention and Treatment.

Figure 3.12 shows that based on the hiting standard we implemented, a bulk of 94.4 % maintain a really good and healthy attitude toward dengue bar and intervention.

Appraisal on Practices.

Figure 3.13 shows that 91.2 % of the respondents were cognizant that harbouring larvae of the Aedes mosquito in the house or compound, was against the jurisprudence.

Storage of Water in Homes.

Figure 3.14 shows that out of 250 respondents, 163 shop H2O in their places.

Management of Stored Water ( n=163 )

Figure 3.15 shows that in mention to Figure 3.14, out of the 163 who store H2O, 33, out of the 163, which is 20.2 % do non hold pattern any preventative steps towards the genteelness of Aedess mosquitoes in their stored H2O.

Attempts to Fight against Dengue.

Figure 3.16 shows that the most extremely recognizable effot to battle Dengue from the respondents point of position was the fogging run done by local governments at 57.9 % .

Practices of respondents in Bukit Pelandok for Dengue Prevention.

Figure 3.17 shows that based on the hiting standard we implemented, 82.8 % of the respondents showed good patterns in dengue bar.

Knowledge V Practices

Cognition

Preventive Practices

A

Good

Good

132

( 89.2 % )

Not good

75

( 73.5 % )

P=0.001 Chi-square=10.398 There is a important association. Odds ratio:3

Table 3.1 shows that there is a important association between good cognition and good patterns in the bar of Dengue.

Attitude V Practices

P=0.000

A Attitude

Practices

Chi-square=16.614

A

Good

Poor

There is important association.

Oddss ratio:8

Table 3.2 shows that there is important association between good attitude and good patterns.

Good

201

35

( 85.2 % )

( 14.8 % )

Poor

6

8

( 42.9 % )

( 57.1 % )

Knowledge vs Attitude

A Knowledge

Attitude

A

Good

Good

144

97.3 %

Poor

92

90.2 %

P=0.016 Chi-square=5.76 There is important association. Odds ratio:4

Table 3.3 shows that there is important association between good cognition and good attitudes towards dengue bar among the respondents in Bukit Pelandok.

Discussion

Based on the information compiled and analyzed, we compared our study with the research done in Kuala Kangsar, 2003. There were striking similarities in the common beginnings of information sing Dengue virus and its bar which is shown in Table 3.4 as follows:

Area / Source of Information

Bukit Pelandok

Kuala Kangsar

Television

40.0 %

27.0 %

Friends/Relatives

82.0 %

57.5 %

Table 3.4

From the tabular array, we can see that the telecasting and friends/relatives are the highest and most common beginnings of obtaining information about dandy fever in both the countries.

Area/Breeding site

Bukit Pelandok

Kuala Kangsar

Dead Water

87.2 %

88.5 %

Runing Water

2.4 %

1.0 %

Table 3.5

From Table 3.5, bulk of respondents in both studies managed to province and place non-flowing H2O ( dead ) H2O as the genteelness site for Aedes mosquitoes.

However, when we came to the portion of taking duty in the conflict against dandy fever febrility and the Aedess mosquito genteelness, both countries differ significantly in their positions.

Area/ Who is responsible

Bukit Pelandok

Kuala Kangsar

Own

34.8 %

57.0 %

Government

7.6 %

9.5 %

Both

57.6 %

33.5 %

Table 3.6 above showed that Bukit Pelandok respondents were more cognizant about the demand to collaborate with the authorities in the conflict against the dandy fever virus, and genteelness of Aedess mosquitoes.

Area / KAP

Bukit Pelandok

Kuala Kangsar

Good Knowledge

59.2 %

68.5 %

Good Attitude

94.4 %

91.5 %

Good Practice

82.8 %

51.5 %

Table 3.7 above showed that even though a lower per centum of respondents in Bukit Pelandok had good cognition compared to respondents in Kuala Kangsar, per centum of respondents in Bukit Pelandok that have good attitude and good pattern in the conflict against the dandy fever virus and genteelness of Aedes mosquitoes by and large were higher.

Study Restrictions

One obvious restriction of the survey was that there was truly a clip restraint on the conductivity of the survey itself. This led us to utilize convenience sampling as our primary method of trying. This method of trying nevertheless will ensue in limited generalisations that can be deduced through this study.

As ever, linguistic communication barriers besides surfaced during the interview. It was the most hard when a Malay speech production interviewer and to explicate footings and definitions to a chiefly mandarin talking respondent.

There were besides non-responses from the population at Bukit Pelandok as some even thought us as con work forces that were up to soil fast ones.

Recommendations

The media plays a elephantine function in educating the populace on the bar of Dengue febrility. We must utilize the media to our advantage, the authorities should air methods of bar and healthy life that will enable the populace to grok their function in eliminating this disease. We must besides do certain that all the proclamations on the telecasting and wireless must be in multi linguistic communications, this is because Malaysia is a multicultural land. Hence the populace who are of many different sort of idioms and linguistic communications would be able to understand the advice given by the authorities. Billboards can besides be set up in public countries such as schools to reenforce and cultivate in the populace the duties which they have to transport out to conflict the dandy fever virus.

Political campaigns from house to house might besides be effectual. The Ministry of Health has got to gripe up and its staff and adult male power. The ministry should carry on even more strictly and often, topographic point cheques in countries of high dandy fever happenings. The jurisprudence must be amended as to give the Ministry of Health more authorization and liberty in covering with occupants who are self-satisfied and are guilty of allowing the Aedes mosquito strain irresponsibly in their compounds.

Decision

Dengue has been a changeless threat in our state and has affected the full state.

Despite authorities increasing preventative steps such as fogging, wireless and telecasting proclamations and educational runs among schools and the similar, instances have increased.

The recent developments of utilizing familial modified mosquitoes in the conflict against the genteelness of Aedes mosquitoes needs more clip and intensive research to find whether it is doing an impact or non.

Mentions

Hairi, F. ( 2003 ) . A cognition, attitude and patterns ( kap ) survey on dandy fever among selected rural communities in the kuala kangsar territory. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 15 ( 37 ) , 37-43.

Itrat, A. ( 2008 ) . Knowledge, consciousness and patterns sing dandy fever febrility among the grownup population of dandy fever hit cosmopolites. Plos One, 3 ( 7 ) , 1-6.

Koenraadt, C.J.M. ( 2006 ) . Dengue cognition and patterns and their impact on Aedess aegypti populations in tamphaeng thet, Thailand. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74, 692-700.

Win, K.T. ( 2004 ) . Community-based appraisal of dengue-related cognition among health professionals. Dengue Bulletin, 28, 189-195.