The History Of The French Revolution History Essay

And yet, in the postwar domestic research of the Gallic Revolution, unmistakable symptoms of the diminution of the traditional readings have been emerging for decennaries, the exclusive exclusion being Soboul ‘s classic on the sans-culottes of Year II and the direct democracy of the Paris territories. Put bluffly, the domestic narrative became boringly self-repetitive. Until the publication of Furet’sA Thinking the Gallic RevolutionA in the 2nd half of the

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1970s, which has become a turning point for friend and enemy likewise, introducing drift came entirely from outside. The Anglo-American “ revisionism ” successfully questioned the relevancy of the major explanatory devices of the Marxist school, at least in the existent signifier in which they had been used. Via the accrued experience of sociological research, the new American “ societal history ” or “ historical sociology, ” whose paradigmatic plants were Tilly’sA The VendeeA and Skocpol’sA States and Social RevolutionsA , gave an of import stimulation to that peculiar manner of composing history, which had been confined excessively long to a doubtful method of “ typology. ” In her famed, every bit good as heatedly debated, A On RevolutionA , Hannah Arendt has drawn such a crisp contrast between the “ American ” and “ Gallic ” theoretical accounts of revolution that the after-effects of her challenge or aggravation have been resounding of all time since in historical consciousness. Of the subscribers to the present volume, Higonnet with his most recentA Sister RepublicsA is exhaustively indebted to Arendt ‘s provocative gesture. English and Norse New Leftist historiographers were the lone worthy sucessors to Guerin ‘s and Soboul ‘s pioneering geographic expeditions into a hitherto unknown continent of anon. activists ( I have in head the plants by Cobb and Tonnesson ) .A The Gallic Revolution and the Birth of ModernityA , emerging from a particular bicentenary issue ofSocial ResearchA ( the theoretical diary of the Graduate Faculty of the New School for Social Research ) and with a bulk of its subscribers coming from exterior of Gallic research, tries to populate up to the already really high criterions of the new tradition.

A really serious tendency, at one time historical and philosophical, lurks behind the diminution of the Gallic domestic narration. The terminal of World War II marked the coincident prostration of the great paradigms of N

ineteenth-century historicism, which, without public acknowledgment, had been philosophically eroded already for a long clip. The Hegelian-Marxian paradigm of a progressive decision of ( pre ) history was hard, subsequently outright impossible, to keep in the face of the Holocaust and the Gulag. Paradigms of historical decay had deeply compromised themselves by their frequently close association with the “ heroic ” attempts of Fascism and Nazism to “ get the better of degeneracy. ” The paradigms of limited ( largely technological ) advancement, which had for a piece fared best, ran into the unsurmountable hurdle of the seemingly ineliminable poorness of the postcolonial universe and the disbelieving “ ecological consciousness. ” Although on the academic scene of “ mass society ” historical research has expanded to an unbelievable extent ; although its methodological selfawareness has been vastly refined and its tools sharpened ; although the walls of national segregation have been pulled down within the planetary establishment of academia, historiographers have been progressively at a loss refering theA excess murosA relevancy of their research.

In the interim, nevertheless, a good alteration has begun to develop in

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the professional-historical consciousness under the impact of the widespread credence of hermeneutics in the societal scientific disciplines. This credence has influenced the historiographer, whether or non the historiographer was consciously preoccupied with doctrine. The nineteenth-century paradigms of history operated with the construct of an aim, unvarying, homogenous and consistent procedure consisting its “ significance ” ( which was to be “ scientifically ” deciphered by historiographers ) . They frequently used the hypothesis of nonsubjective historical Torahs, and they ascribed an unambiguous ( although divergingly explicated ) way to the built-in procedure. True plenty, several components of these theories, above all its “ objectiveness, ” had already been deeply questioned in the 19th century, chiefly by Nietzsche. The methodological effects of this challenge, nevertheless, dawned on the historiographer with inordinate hold. But now we are populating in an age of “ hermeneutical consciousness, ” the spirit of which, transpirating in the present volume, can be summed up in a term that none of the participants utilizations and some of them would object to: A posthistoireA .

PosthistoireA , a term coined in the procedure of researching “ postmodernity, ” seems to be a peculiarly awkward class for the usage of historiographers if it is meant in the facile and deceptive sense of “ history holding come to a deadlock. ” But there are other possible readings of the term. If “ postmodernity ” is understood non as an epoch subsequent to modernness, but as a place and attitudeA withinA modernness which confirms modernness ‘s “ reaching, ” its concluding settling-in, while at the same clip doing enquiries into modernness ‘s certificates and attempts to render significance to it, the conceptA posthistoireA will emerge from a tabu and a barrier for the historian into a stimulation. In this apprehension, history will transpirate as a text that we read together, but each of us in his or her ain single manner. This corporate, at the same clip personal, reading does non acknowledge any “ distinguished ” reader. ( Such a place could merely be achieved by the absolute transcendency of our common universe: modernness. ) But although there are merely myths of and chesty claims to a “ distinguished place ” and “ absolute transcendency, ” there is so a shared nucleus in the reading of the same narrative by every community of readers.

Despite the conspicuous-theoretical, methodological, and political-differences between the subscribers toA The Gallic Revolution and the Birth of ModernityA , the “ shared nucleus ” of the narrative read and recounted by them, separately and jointly, is palpably present. It is comprised in the rubric of the volume, and it provides this aggregation of documents with a strong internal coherence. The shared nucleus is the writers ‘ acknowledgment that after several important ancestors and preliminaries, modernness has been born out of the Gallic Revolution ; farther, that modernness “ is here, ” it has arrived ; and, eventually, that it has to be given a significance. It is at this point that the frequently het argument between the apparently stray documents in the volume begins.

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Two

The first complex issue, about which there is a considerable grade of dissension among the writers, but discussed in the “ subtext ” instead than in the text itself, is the inquiry of whether the procedure of birth of modernness had really come to an terminal or whether it is still a delivery-in-progress. This “ simply ” subtextual issue is of important significance. Its rating will finally make up one’s mind the tone, the method, and the manner of the parts, the distance that has been taken in them to the jointly recounted narrative. Put briefly, this will specify whether the capable affair of the narrative, to utilize a wise class that Agnes Heller coined in herA A Theory of HistoryA , is “ the yesteryear of the present ” or past pure and simple, which, as such, is dead.

As is good known, Furet holds the position that the Gallic Revolution has already come to an terminal and therefore has to be treated as a “ cold issue ” by the historiographer. In this context, it will do to asseverate about this regularly misread apercu that it is non a hostile statement against the Revolution and that the thesis of the fait-accompli character of the Revolution is non an obstruction to Furet in take parting in the “ shared nucleus ” of the narrative, in “ rendering significance to modernness. ” On the contrary: it is exactly on this footing that he can explicate what he regards as the chief message of our age. For my portion, I have insisted inA The Frozen RevolutionA that at least in one regard, refering its unlimited and still active energy of bring forthing Jacobin and neo-Jacobin designs, the radical processA shouldA come to a arrest ( which by definition agencies that as yet it has non ) . In my parts to this volume, I have repeated this warning. Higonnet has besides been believing along similar lines. His paper reconsiders the historical-cultural causes of the menace of what he calls “ the universalist semblance ” of Gallic extremist revolutionists, which is for him obviously still topical. Other subscribers to the volume clearly understand the Gallic Revolution as a procedure still active, at least in its aftereffects, and, as such, incomplete. Both in Tilly ‘s and Skocpol ‘s apprehension, the Revolution was about the huge support of the nation-state, a procedure that, as Tilly emphasiss and proves in his paper, had been underway since the mideighteenth century. Furthermore, the procedure has merely commenced in certain countries of the universe, as Skocpol pinpoints with respect to Iran. The alternate positions of our present, as either a dead or a simply extinguished volcano-that is, in a less metaphoric linguistic communication, as either the amalgamate terminal consequence of revolutions no longer in demand of major alteration or of the aftereffects of a still lively radical dynamic bring forthing changeless change-are doubtless important with respect to what sort of significance is rendered to modernness.

The 2nd major issue of contention among the subscribers concerns the footings of reading. Of them, Hobsbawm is the lone facile title-holder of the traditional apprehension in footings of “ category, ” whereas the rel-

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evant parts of Furet ‘s paper service as the most articulate defense of the traditional place. Without rehashing their statements, it has to be stated that, foremost, the “ revisionist ” thesis set forth chiefly by Cobban decennaries ago seems to hold broken through and now stands uncontested. Marc Richir ‘s apercu refering the Gallic middle class as the consequence, instead than the cause, of the Revolution, has in this volume been accepted by Furet and Wallerstein likewise, although they hold widely divergent political positions. Furthermore, the precise category designation of the histrion has in the interim lost a considerable grade of its topicality, unless person regards the present as a mere preliminary to the existent play. The major term of account can every bit be “ the nation-state, ” which is Tilly ‘s option, “ the universe system ” ( this is Wallerstein ‘s explanatory device, whereas Skocpol picks a spot of both ) , or the capableness of a revolution to bring forth “ maestro narrations ” that, in bend, trigger the generalised acquisition procedures of modernness. ( The latter is the model in footings of which both Higonnet and this author understand the hereafter of the Revolution every bit good as its permanent impact on the present. ) It goes without stating that the different key constructs imply different readings of the “ text of history ” and therefore different significances rendered to modernness. But in each instance, they are selected and used with a position to the “ shared nucleus ” of the readings.

The echt clang among the writers, one which sheds a dramatic visible radiation on the nature of modernness, is the struggle between the “ strictly political ” and the “ societal ” reading of the Revolution. The latter is represented in several different versions in the volume and is in bend criticized both by Higonnet and Furet. Without claiming the place of umpire, it is this author ‘s strong belief that merely a combined reading, in which neither the political nor the economic ( the “ category ” ) factor plays the function ofA primus movensA , would bring out the alone accomplishment of the Gallic Revolution, viz. , the creative activity of a cosmopolitan model of political action in consequence of which the Gallic Revolution has remained the maestro narration of modernness. The permanent character of this accomplishment was for a long clip covered by the bloody confusion of the radical decennaries, the existent prostration of the Gallic Revolution, and the complicity of a long line of history-writing that generated and circulated narrations of the great event non less nonreversible and blindfolded than the histrions ‘ ain histories had been. But now, in the procedure of “ rendering significance to modernness, ” the model resurfaces from under the dust of history. And the assorted parts toA The Gallic Revolution and the Birth of ModernityA , taken in their entireness, supply sufficient hints to the apprehension of the model.

The initial stairss of the Gallic histrions were characterized by a surprising grade of both political naivete and flightiness. They were naif in so far as they innocently believed that the sole, albeit mammoth, undertaking expecting them was the title of a simply political Reconstruction. Once the “ fact ” ( more decently:

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their radical projection ) that “ every adult male is born free ” had been recognized ; onceA la nationA , the new universal which is pre-existent with respect to both persons and corporations, had been established ; one time the province is “ free ” in so far as it proclaimed a new type of ( corporate ) crowned head ; one time everyone was recognized as equal before the jurisprudence, their undertaking was done and completed. Like the American Cincinnati, they thought they could return to their places. This belief in the cure-all character of the primary act of emancipation was extended by them to the economic sphere every bit good. One of the as-yet-unwritten narratives of the Revolution is the initialA volte-faceA of even those economic experts who had been brought up in the school of an enlightened but steadfast province ordinance of the markets during the last decennaries of the monarchy. This reversal appears in visible radiation of Tilly ‘s history of the addition in the direct regulation of the province, accelerated by the Revolution, as sheer semblance. But in the early ambiance of general enthusiasm, even the formerA etatistesA became zealots of the complete deregulating of the markets.

The revolutionists were besides overly arbitrary. On certain counts, in peculiar refering the victims of spiritual bias, their generousness seemed to hold no bounds. Gary Kates tells here the narrative of Jews holding been turned into Frenchmen about overnight. If easy and inconsistently, they still did uncomparably more for the emancipation of the slaves than the American initiation male parents, exalted to high celestial spheres by Arendt, had of all time considered to make. On other counts, their record was shocking from the start. Their electoral system was drafted in the spirit of a patronizing and autocratic Enlightenment ; as a consequence, a considerable portion of the poorer strata of the public was excluded from it. The adult females ‘s issue, as a job to be addressed, was ne’er put on their docket. And in a pathbreaking survey, Richard Andrews has shown rather late that their first penal codification contained such restrictions on the freedom of address that the authorities during the Reign of Terror needed really small imaginativeness to magnify its asperity.

Naivete could hold been overcome and arbitrariness rectified, nevertheless, had it non been for the monumental and acrimonious surprise caused by the boisterous behaviour of the freshly emancipated crowd. Both Singer ‘s analysis of the centrality of the crowd ‘s force with its specific claim to popular justness and Skocpol ‘s accent on mass mobilisation make the important function of this “ boisterous behaviour ” of the crowd in the whole procedure sufficiently clear. Once recognized as citizens, the crowd seemed to be entirely preoccupied, above all on the urban scene, with such coarse issues as the monetary value of staff of life. And at a well-known, important point, the urban hapless proposed and imposed the entire forsaking of both political and economic freedom in “ seting the panic on the docket ” and coercing the debut ofA le maximal generalA .

With this, the initial naif harmoniousness of the first yearss exploded, ne’er to return once more. The Revolution embarked on the fatal class of voyaging between the Scyllae of a strong, frequently terroristic province whose existent socioeco-

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nomic policies varied ( hence the legitimate emphasis on the province in Tilly and Skocpol ) and the Charybdis of the wish to return to the self-regulatory mechanisms of a market system ( which has remained a pious or impious want of Gallic political relations for a long clip but which has ne’er regained the place it had enjoyed and abused in the early yearss of the Revolution ) . And it is therefore that the model of modern political relations, the extremes between which it has been traveling for two centuries and the infinite between them wherein modernness worked itself out, have been created.

However, the “ homecoming of modernness ” -the historical minute in which “ the rendition of intending ” can be undertaken-is to be achieved merely if the two built-in tendencies of this rhythm, political freedom and the direction of the “ societal inquiry, ” were reconciled at least to the grade of a peaceable cohabitation. For this, two demands had to be met. First, the primacy of political freedom, the rule of the free province, had to be maintained. Neither the dialectical thought of a “ dictatorship of freedom ” nor a streamlined signifier of tyranny pure and simple can work out “ the societal inquiry, ” or, for that affair, any societal issue. But they can finally destruct modernness. It belongs to the illustriousness of the Gallic Revolution, every bit long as it had remained a revolution and had non yet been turned into an autocratic-charismatic regulation, thatat least the principleA of freedom and popular sovereignty was ne’er abandoned by any of its representative solons. Robespierre gave a short symbolic look of this reluctance to exceed the threshold in the celebrated inquiry ofA Au nom de qui? A on the last dark of his life. And Saint-Just, before being silenced by the Convention for good, emphasized that twothirds of the legislative work of the Assembly during the most moonstruck yearss of the Reign of Terror had been aimed at beef uping, alternatively of snuff outing, civil society. This vacillation before the fatal threshold elevates the narrative of the Gallic Revolution to the rank of modernness ‘s maestro narration over the Bolshevik “ 2nd and expanded edition. ”

The 2nd demand of “ the homecoming of modernness ” has been formulated by Furet in a self-contradictory mode. In a talk given at New York University in October 1988, he set forth the posit of democracy “ burying its beginnings. ” The matter-of-fact significance of this pronouncement reads as follows: the acrimonious battles, which had torn asunder the initial harmoniousness of the great Revolution and had propelled its histrions every bit good as its replacements onto a rhythm of lasting civil wars, must come to a arrest in an act of rapprochement, or else modernness will be destroyed. I am in complete understanding with Furet ‘s posit, but I deem it executable merely on the footing of making a legitimate infinite for the changeless renegotiation of “ the societal inquiry ” on the footing of political freedom as an absolute stipulation.

Three major issues of the political civilization of the Revolution have been discussed in the volume, each in bend lending well to the present countenance and “ significance ” of modernness. The first is the job of

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“ the republican bequest, ” dealt with in the documents by Smith, Furet, and this author. The issue at interest is far more than strictly terminological in nature. Whether democracy would tendentially travel toward the KantianA res publica noumenonA or stay the regulation of the bulk pure and simple ( or even, as Sieyes feared, a frontage for a new oligarchy ) was possibly the most important alternative the Revolution had to face. The “ terminological word-splitting ” taking at the definition of the new province formed an organic portion of the acrimonious internal battles of the era. The 2nd issue, the “ resacralizing ” of the political domain after it had been exhaustively secularized and rationalized, as recounted by this author, has been joined and complemented by Miguel Abensour ‘s analysis of the “ cult of gallantry ” in the Revolution. On the surface, it transpires as a strictly Gallic narrative holding no continuance in the political history of the continent. In fact, both the resacralizing of the political domain and the cult of gallantry, individually and collectively, were the preliminary to that major incubus stalking modernness of all time since: magnetic regulation. Finally, the issue with which revolutions have ne’er ceased to be associated since the Gallic play, viz. the force of the crowd as a constituent portion of political action, is, in its whole complexness, the capable affair of Singer ‘s paper.

This political civilization was “ domestic, ” per se and frequently chauvinistically Gallic. At the same clip, it was universalized in the ( knowing every bit good as unwilled ) attempts of the Revolution to enforce itself on what it understood as the modern universe. To see the NapoleonicA Grande ArmeeA as the sole vehicle of this conquering would be an mistake and a simplification. From a certain facet, modernness can be viewed as an sum of representative narrations that, as a regulation, spread far beyond national boundary lines and served as designs for, and therefore implicitly conquered, other states and national imaginativenesss.

Three

The cultural bequest of the Gallic Revolution is to a great extent represented in this book, but one time once more entirely with respect to its impact on the future civilization of modernness. This impact is twofold. On the one manus, the Revolution gave the strongest possible drift to the rise of the aureate age of doctrine of history. On the other manus, it triggered the birth of the “ nonsubjective ” scientific discipline of society. Both issues have been dealt with in this volume by the parts of Furet, Mitchell, Smith, and this author.

The drift given by the Great Revolution to the expansive narrations of the doctrine of history was direct. There was nil matter-of-fact in the representative histrions on the Paris scene. From the autumn of the Bastille boulder clay Thermidor and even after, the most broad every bit good as the most intolerant 1s among them shared the strong belief, albeit in different orchestrations and changing

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readings, that the Revolution had non merely grown out of doctrine but that it had been assigned the undertaking, as Robespierre put it most affectingly, to carry through the promises of doctrine, to reason the prehistoric culture of world and complement the revolutions in the physical universe by a moral universe revolution.

But the watershed event was excessively close to the organic structure of its histrions for them to project a glimpse at it from the distance necessary for philosophical guess. No admiration, so, that the representative doctrines of history, whose specific content can be regarded as a response to the quandary posed by the Gallic Revolution, were born outside the Gallic context, chiefly in Germany. ( This is why the analyses of Kant and Hegel play such a cardinal function in this volume. ) Nor was this external fruition of the cultural outputs of the Revolution restricted to doctrine. The immortal music of radical enthusiasm-an emotion crucial for both Kant and Robespierre-found its ultimate look in Beethoven ‘s remarkable combination of an eternal harmonic stuff with the titanic tune of “ fraternity ” and the outgrowth of the motive of the Hero. The individual great historical play written on the Revolution is Buchner’sA Danton ‘s DeathA . Merely radical picture came of age on the domestic scene through the coppice of that eccentric combination of an creative person, as mastermind and individualist, and a security constabulary head, viz. Jacques-Louis David.

Revolutionary ( and immediate postrevolutionary ) France ‘s ain part to this great rational transmutation was the “ scientific discipline ” of the new society, which instantly split and went in two different waies. With Saint-Simon, it concentrated on the review of the society born out of the turbulencies of a one-fourth of a century. Socialism was born as the critical scientific discipline of the society created by the Revolution, one which applied radical rules to the terminal consequence of the radical procedure. With Comte, societal scientific discipline accepted the new society as an irrefutable fact and went about the apprehension of its mechanics with great composure.

Doctrine of history, turning out of the “ philosophical revolution, ” focused on such issues as were, without exclusion, painful and finally insolvable quandary for the revolutionists themselves. What is the “ significance ” of a revolution? Does it connote a complete interruption with the yesteryear, a entire tabula rasa as the histrions themselves had believed, or does it hold a continuity with the yesteryear that had remained concealed for the histrions in the febrility of enthusiasm? Is the revolution a “ solemn ” act, a moral “ excess ” the generated energy of which has to be preserved for the democracy to last? Or is it instead a “ backsliding into the province of nature ” or possibly the combination of this backsliding and a signal of “ advancement in nature ” ? Should revolution be continued for good, or should it come to a arrest at some point while constructing its consequences in the organic structure of the new society? What is the character of history created by this catastrophe? Is history from now on “ determined ” and predictable, oper-

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ating harmonizing to moral or scientific Torahs? Or is it exactly its unpredictable and “ helter-skelter, ” that is, indeterminate, character that had opened up in the great event? These and similar inquiries were asked by the doctrine of history under the direct impact of the Gallic Revolution. And the inquiries themselves, together with the replies given to them so and at that place, ( both being sufficiently analyzed in the parts to this book, chiefly in that of Harvey Mitchell ) , have ne’er left us.

PosthistoireA , under the auspices of which the present book was born, is non distinguished by holding the “ ultimate ” reply to these old quandary. Rather, it is distinguished by acknowledging the ( evidently non indistinguishable ) relevancy of the changing replies given to the quandary, that is, by the spirit of hermeneutics. The book concludes on a apparently modest note in Furet ‘s rereading of the paradigms in footings of which historiography, in other words, every new nowadays, tried to get by with its yesteryear: the Revolution. However, the output of this hermeneutical ocean trip is of import. For in the carefully worded inquiries addressed to the text, in the probationary replies the text and the reader together supply to the inquiries, a major bend has been negotiated. In the historical hr of the crisis of Bolshevik self-identity, the Gallic Revolution, by taking beds of “ the Russian reading ” imposed on its text by coevalss of translators, reclaims its primogeniture as the reliable maestro narration of modernness.

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Introduction

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