The African American Civil Rights Movement History Essay

The intent of this paper is to inform the reader of the civil rights act and what it means to African Americans and the importance of it to our American history today. This motion changed our state for of all time.

The African-American Civil Rights Movement

The civil rights motion of the 1900 ‘s started on December 1, 1955 which started with the Montgomery Bus Boycott which happened on this twenty-four hours. The Montgomery Boycott was a twenty-four hours that African Americans set aside to stand for what they though was right by sitting on coachs in any place that they desired because they had had enough of all the material with inkinesss traveling to the dorsum of the coach the stood for what today is right. Some familiar faces of this boycott were: Dr.Martin L. King, Rosa Parks, she is one of the adult females who in the forepart of an about empty coach sat down and that are how it all started. So after that twenty-four hours the tenseness grew even further between Whites and black which led to the following event which was Boycotts the metropolis of Montgomery, Alabama went boycott loony were a batch of people were arrested or even killed. But the terminal consequence of it was a success, people really started to see what was truly traveling on in the South.

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When the boycott began, no 1 expected it to last for really long. There had been boycotts of coachs by inkinesss before, most late in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in 1953. A one-day boycott, followed three months subsequently by a week-long boycott, resulted in coachs that were more desegregated but that still had some seats reserved for Whites every bit good as some for inkinesss. On Thursday, December 8, the 4th twenty-four hours of the boycott, King and other MIA functionaries met with functionaries and attorneies from the coach company, every bit good as the metropolis commissioners, to show a moderate integration program similar to the one already implemented in Baton Rouge and other Southern metropoliss, including Mobile, Alabama. The MIA was hopeful that the program would be accepted and the boycott would stop, but the coach company refused to see it. In add-on, metropolis functionaries struck a blow to the boycott when they announced that any cab driver bear downing less than the 45 cent lower limit menu would be prosecuted. Since the boycott began, the black cab services had been bear downing inkinesss merely 10 cents to sit, the same as the coach menu, but this service would be no more. Suddenly the MIA was faced with the chance of holding 1000s of inkinesss with no manner to acquire to work, and with no terminal to the boycott in sight.

Then came about an organisation called the MIA which stood for the Montgomery Improvement Association in which Dr. King was elected to supervise. This association was the originator behind the Montgomery Bus Boycott which consisted of an executive board in which seats were vacated by assorted sermonizers and curates around the Montgomery country. Then, at the terminal of this epoch a Supreme Court justice ended up governing that the segregation on coachs was to be over and so the motion went on.

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Besides, some noteworthy names that played a portion in the Boycott were: we all know Rosa Parks, Fred Gray, Ralph Abernathy, Robert Graetz, Martin Luther King, Jr. , Coretta Scott King and Inez Baskin ; they are the people that played the most of import function in the boycott.

( www.montgomeryboycott.com/ )

The following large motion was held in 1947, the Congress of Racial Equality planned a trip that was designed to prove the Supreme Court ‘s 1946 determination in the Irene Morgan instance, this declared segregated seating of interstate riders unconstitutional. An interracial group of riders met with heavy opposition in the upper South. This motion was the freedom drives. The freedom drive was a group of people that left Washington on May 4, 1961. They were supposed to get in New Orleans on May 17th, the day of remembrance of the brown determination. But while on the trip as the drives traveled through Alabama they split into two different subdivisions to go through the province at different times. The first 1s to come in went through Anniston where they were met by a squad of gangsters. They damaged the coach the freedom riders were siting. But, so they eventually got off from the angry crowd.

Then, they made the incorrect determination to halt to acquire some new tyres, the worst was yet to come until the coach was destroyed by a fire bomb. Then the other group that came in through a different portion of the province did non make much break it went through the same calamity as the first group but that did non halt them from traveling frontward they kept on forcing there manner through the South. But, the freedom rides ne’er made it to New Orleans a batch of them ended up in gaol while the others got off.

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On April 6, the constabulary took 45 people to imprison for processing from Sixteenth Street Baptist Church to metropolis hall. The following twenty-four hours, Palm Sunday, alot people were arrested. In add-on, two constabularies Canis familiariss attacked nineteen-year-old dissenter Leroy Allen as a big crowd looked on. In response to the protests, Judge W.A. Jenkins, Jr. , issued an order forestalling 133 of the metropolis ‘s civil rights leaders, including King, his friend and fellow SCLC leader Ralph Abernathy, and Shuttles worth from forming presentations. But the Project C program called for King to be arrested on Good Friday, April 12. After a few hours of argument, King told his staff, “ Look, I do n’t cognize what to make. I merely know that something has got to alter in Birmingham. I do n’t cognize whether I can raise money to acquire people out of gaol. I do cognize that I can travel into gaol with them. “ A King was arrested and put in lone parturiency. There, he read an ad in theA Birmingham News, taken out by local white curates, which called him a trouble maker. He responded to the ad, composing in the borders of the newspaper and on toilet paper. His response was finally published as his “ Letter from Birmingham Jail ” . ( http: //www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/civilrights-55-65/montbus.html )

“ While confined here in the Birmingham City Jail, I came across your recent statement naming our present activities “ unwise and ill-timed ” . . . . Frankly I have ne’er yet engaged in a direct action motion that was “ good timed, ” harmonizing to the timetable of those who have non suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For old ages now I have heard the word “ Delay! ” It rings in the ear of every Negro with a piercing acquaintance. This “ delay ” has about ever meant “ ne’er. ”

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During the 1960 ‘s the poorest province in the state was Mississippi and it had the worst vote record among inkinesss. Besides, in Mississippi 48 per centum of the population was Afro-american, so you can see where all of these ailments are coming from because merely 5 per centum of the population was registered to vote. A batch of inkinesss wanted a opportunity to vote. But, the authorities made inkinesss take ace difficult trial that were impossible to go through that would find whether or non they would be able to merely register to vote. This trial was so difficult even a black adult male with a philosophy could non go through the trial because it was made to be impossible to go through. The lone ground that inkinesss were non allowed to vote was because of segregation of inkinesss in the South. In defence against inkinesss voting rights the NAACP came to Mississippi to buttonhole against the Mississippi authorities to turn out that all of this was unconstitutional but they did non win. But the chief aim of freedom summer was to set up the Mississippi freedom democratic Party and it was created to travel up against the white democratic party, but all it did was lead to force and a batch of guiltless people were injured or killed. ( http: //www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/civilrights-55-65/ )

The following large thing I want to speak about is the celebrated March on Washington which was a large key event in the civil rights motion. This brave March happed on August 28, 1963. This March was non merely about occupations and freedom but Dr. King besides wanted our state to be at peace with segregation. This banging March made planetary headlines and was stream live on international television Stationss and it drew about 250,000 people and a bulk of the people that showed up were white. It besides went down as one of the most peaceable protest in the states history, it besides included a host of addresss and musical public presentations from large name people such as Bob Dylan, who did a musical public presentation and many other large name people. But the most important address was Dr. King ‘s I have a dream address

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.infoplease.com/spot/marchonwashington.html )

Here is an exert from Dr. Kings address:

“ A I am happy to fall in with you today in what will travel down in history as the greatest presentation for freedom in the history of our state.

Five mark old ages ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous edict came as a great beacon visible radiation of hope to 1000000s of Negro slaves who had been seared in the fires of shriveling unfairness. It came as a joyous dawn to stop the long dark of their imprisonment.

But one hundred old ages subsequently, the Negro still is non free. One hundred old ages subsequently, the life of the Negro is still unhappily crippled by the handcuffs of segregation and the ironss of favoritism. One hundred old ages subsequently, the Negro lives on a alone island of poorness in the thick of a huge ocean of stuff prosperity. One hundred old ages subsequently, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an expatriate in his ain land. And so we ‘ve come here today to dramatise a black status.

In a sense we ‘ve come to our state ‘s capital to hard currency a cheque. When the designers of our republic wrote the brilliant words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were subscribing a promissory note to which every American was to fall inheritor. This note was a promise that all work forces, yes, black work forces every bit good as white work forces, would be guaranteed the “ inalienable Rights ” of “ Life, Liberty and the chase of Happiness. ” It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, in so far as her citizens of colour are concerned. Alternatively of honouring this sacred duty, America has given the Negro people a bad cheque, a cheque which has come back marked “ deficient financess. ”

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm )

From that twenty-four hours frontward Martin Luther King ‘s address is still known as one of the most celebrated addresss in American history and that is why so many people still respect him today because it took a batch of bravery for a adult male.

“ The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was born in the presidential term of John F. Kennedy who was elected president in 1960. His support of civil rights issue in old old ages had been patchy – he had opposed Eisenhower ‘s 1957 Act to maintain in with the Democrats hierarchy as he had programs to run for president every bit good as Johnson.A The new president was faced with facts that were incontestable and came from the organisation created in the 1960 Civil Rights ActA to analyse civil rights issue in America – the Civil Rights Commission. They found that 57 % of African American lodging judged to be unacceptable African American life anticipation was 7 old ages less than Whites African American baby mortality was twice every bit great as Whites African Americans found it all but impossible to acquire mortgages from mortgage loaners Property values would dropped a great trade if an African American household moved into a vicinity that was non a ghetto. President Kennedy in a passionate public address made these facts available to the American populace. Constantly in the background was the hapless intervention of people in Eastern Europe during the Soviet business of this country. The Cuban Missile Crisis took up a great trade of his short clip in power. But aligned to this was the fact that few Whites considered civil rights a peculiarly of import issue – one canvass put civil rights at the underside of a list of “ what should be done for America? ” Kennedy besides merely won the1960 election by a really smallA bulk ( 500,000 ballots ) so he did non hold a popular authorization for making anything excessively drastic. Besides the Vietnam War. Was absorbing more clip with what was American covert action in the part at this clip. Kennedy ‘s blackwash shocked the universe. His vice-president – Lyndon Johnson – all of a sudden found himself sworn in as president on Air Force One. Johnson had done what he politically needed to make to halt the full execution of the 1957 Civil Rights Act, but despite the fact he was a Texan, he realized that a major civil rights act was needed to progress African Americans within USA society. He besides used the daze of Kennedy ‘s slaying to force frontward the 1964 Civil Rights Act, portion of what he was to term his vision for America – the “ Great Society ” . The seeds of the 1964 Act were sown in Kennedy ‘s presidential term. Johnson believed that he owed it to Kennedy ‘s life to force through this act particularly as he was non an elected president. America had now moved on from the 1957 Act. Martin Luther King was now an international figure and Malcolm X was now proclaiming that a more hawkish attack could be used to derive civil rights. The evident inactive attack of the 1950 ‘s was now gone. The northern metropolis ghettos were now traveling more and more towards combativeness. Society had changed in merely a few short old ages. Johnson realized this and wanted changed before possible civil agitation forced it through.The civil rights measure ‘s success in go throughing Congress owed much to the slaying of Kennedy. The temper of the populace in general would non hold allowed any obvious deliberate efforts to damage “ Kennedy ‘s measure ” . Even so, the measure had to last the longest effort in Congress to earnestly weaken it. Johnson played the obvious card – how could anybody vote against an issue so beloved to the late president ‘s bosom? How could anybody be so disloyal? Johnson merely appealed to the state – still traumatized by Kennedy ‘s slaying. To win over the Southern hard-liners, Johnson told them he would non let the measure to digest anybody utilizing it as a lever to hold an easy life regardless of their colour. By January 1964, public sentiment had started to alter – 68 % now supported a meaningful civil rights act. President Johnson signed the 1964 Civil Rights Act in July of that twelvemonth. ” Many Southerners were horrified by the extent of the act. Johnson likely merely got off with the act because he was from Texas. Ironically, the African American community were most vocal in knocking the act. There were public violences by African Americans in north-eastern metropoliss because from their point of position, the act did non travel far plenty and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party ( a preponderantly Black political party ) demanded seats at the Democratic Party Convention to be held in Atlantic City as they believed that they were more representative of the people who lived in Mississippi than the politicians who would normally hold attended such conventions. Johnson was dismayed at this deficiency of public support among the African American community. ”

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Bibliography

Internet:

Cozzens, Lisa. “ The Civil Rights Movement. ” African American

History. hypertext transfer protocol: //fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/

early-civilrights/brown.html ( 25 May 1998 ) .

Juan Williams, A Eyes on the Prize: America ‘s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965A ( New York: Viking Penguin Inc. , 1987 ) 62.

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( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

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