“ It follows than every bit certain as that dark succeeds the twenty-four hours, that without a decisive naval force we can make nil definitive, and with it, everything honorable and glorious. ”
1. The shutting decennaries of the 20th century witnessed sweeping alterations in the security perceptual experience of most states. There have besides been major alterations in the security environment in the Indian Ocean. India has made great paces towards economic advancement and is go oning to make so. This impulse can non be sustained unless a certain step of internal and external security is ensured. Traditional state-centred geopolitics of the yesteryear was excessively narrow and parochial in conceptualising, both, geographics and political relations, and, appreciating the impact of oceans on politico-economic forces. More than ninety per centum of India ‘s trade is sea borne, in add-on to which, the state has a immense EEZ with tremendous militias of minerals, energy and nutrient. Protection of India ‘s maritime involvements, which form a major ball of the state ‘s economic involvements, is hence critical. It is necessary to be after in front and fix for this inevitable transmutation, in which the maritime component will go more and more of import. Potential menaces interfering with our maritime involvements will hold to be overcome, steadfastly and resolutely and attempts made to wheedle regional participants into nautical co-operation for common protection of economic involvements.
2. In the yesteryear, India ‘s attending has been intentionally diverted to its land frontiers, therefore, forestalling its strategic regard from concentrating on the maritime rush enfolding the state from the East and West. Historical grounds indicates that a state, without a committedness to construct a universe category Navy, can non be a universe category participant. India deserves to draw a bead on to play the function of a regional power in South Asia and a facilitator for regional cooperation. Since independency, India has made significant advancement in set uping it ‘s pre-eminence in the Indian Ocean part. Its engagement in the release of Bangladesh, peacekeeping operations in Sri Lanka and suppression of the putsch in Maldives are some illustrations of its superior power position in the part.
3. India ‘s possible prevarications in its geo-strategic location, size and distribution of its island districts in the Indian Ocean. It has huge natural maritime resources, merely a limited sum of which have been exploited. In add-on, its economic revival has led to India being viewed as a regional power and the lone state capable of viing with the ever-growing influence of China in the part. The emerging maritime environment has thrown unfastened legion security challenges and has brought about quantum alterations in maritime warfare. Navy being a autonomous tool of nautical power is self contained non merely to cover with emerging security challenges across the spectrum of struggle but besides has a alone capableness to accomplish geo-strategic aims during peace clip. The Indian Navy would necessitate to cover with future excess regional challenges and to protect India ‘s shooting strategic assets peculiarly nautical trade and energy security. The Navy, hence, needs to develop assets to set about the duties of safeguarding the critical maritime involvements as besides holding a strategic range and an out of country projection capableness. The naval force structuring unwittingly has big gestation periods and in a mode is irreversible one time set into gesture. Therefore, it is imperative that the planning and development of the Indian Naval capablenesss be carried out in a rational and co-ordinated mode maintaining in head the challenges likely to be encountered in the hereafter.
4. The purpose of this paper is analyse the future functions of the Indian Navy and suggest a perspective force construction for the Navy in 2025.
MARITIME INTERESTS OF INDIA
5. The Indian Ocean washes the shores of three continents and 35 littoral provinces, some of which are the fastest turning economic systems of the universe. Geographically India enjoys a alone place stick outing some 2000km into the sea doing it the most outstanding land mass in the Indian Ocean. This alone geographical place brings about half the IOR within a 1500 kilometer discharge from the mainland Indian District[ 1 ]. The outlying islands provide it a further drawn-out range. Thus strategically, India enjoys the geographic advantage to project military power into the Indian Ocean and the Indian Navy is the ideal setup for the same.
6. Sing the likely environment and the future security challenges raised by the turning geo-strategic and geo-economic importance of the Indian Ocean, India would necessitate to develop a proactive scheme to protect its maritime involvements. With the envisaged growing and outgrowth of India as a regional power its maritime involvements would necessitate to presume a much wider canvas and non be restricted to its ports, seaports and coastal sovereignty.
7. Cardinal Maritime Interests. The national involvements of India would imply furthering a secure environment for economic growing. In order to guarantee this it would be in India ‘s involvement to keep peace and stableness in its part of involvement and foster a low menace stable environment at sea and the litorals in the Indian Ocean. In add-on, coastal sovereignty of the far flung islands would go on to stay a cardinal nautical involvement.
8. Economic Security. The fosterage of economic security for India in the maritime sphere would include the protection of trade, energy supplies and the ocean resources. The criticalness of these is enumerated in the undermentioned paragraphs: –
( a ) Trade. India ‘s international trade is overpoweringly ( 90 per centum in volume and 77 per centum in value ) carried on the seas[ 2 ].
( B ) Ocean Resources. India has an EEZ of 2.02 million square kilometer which is likely to increase to 2.54 million square kilometer[ 3 ]. India ‘s chief involvements include development of life and inanimate resources as an option to fast consuming land based resources.
( degree Celsius ) Energy Requirement. India is extremely dependent on oil imports to run into its energy demands. Almost 80 per centum of India ‘s oil demands are imported. This is a major factor for prolonging the rate of growing and is, hence, indispensable.
9. Regional Co-operation. India is acute to heighten bilateral and many-sided co-operation as besides to further stableness in the part. Hence, the maritime sphere could be transformed to an country of cooperation instead than struggle. The countries of naval co-operation and enterprises that are envisaged are as follows: –
( a ) Behavior of combined exercisings and supplying progress information about exercisings and tactics.
( B ) Puting up of joint undertaking force to undertake natural catastrophes.
( degree Celsius ) Making joint attempts to undertake nautical pollution, preservation of maritime environment, buccaneering, planetary smuggling, poaching and SAR.
( vitamin D ) Guaranting the safety of SLOCs by set uping presence in a reciprocally acceptable mode and by transporting out joint patrolling.
10. Maritime Security Concerns. India ‘s nautical security concerns due to its geo strategic location in the continent indicate the followers: –
( a ) To the West is the Gulf oil country and Pakistan, simmering on the brassy point of a planetary energy and atomic crisis.
( B ) To the East is the steadily turning economic system of the ASEAN provinces coupled with China ‘s vigorous efforts that tend to slop over into our maritime zone.
( degree Celsius ) To the South lie the huge bulk of the IOR ‘s developing provinces that are possible hotbed for excess regional intercession.
( vitamin D ) Siting astride the chief ISLs of the IOR, India can non but remain the cardinal focal point of security concerns in the part.
11. Menaces to Economic Security. The major menaces that would halter economic security are: –
( a ) Break of SLOCs.
( B ) Closing of choking coil points.
( degree Celsius ) Piracy.
( vitamin D ) Competition for resources.
12. Menaces to Regional Security. The sensed menaces to the regional security around India are as follows: –
( a ) Maritime terrorist act.
( B ) Internal struggles.
( degree Celsius ) Dissolution of provinces and governments.
( vitamin D ) Proliferation of weaponries and WsMD.
( vitamin E ) Cultural fundamentalism.
13. China. China ‘s lifting defense mechanism budget and military modernization do non go forth any uncertainty about its regional aims. It has aspirations of ruling regional personal businesss and is continuously endeavoring to accomplish the capableness to make so. A major strategic precedence would be to set up a presence in the Indian Ocean. Towards this purpose, China has established strategic presence in assorted locations in the Indian Ocean, from Myanmar to Sri Lanka to geting rights for a base in Mauritius and helping Pakistan in the development of Gwadar deep sea port. These along with its aircraft bearer undertaking and geting an violative blue H2O capableness are a clear indicant that the Chinese would possess the capableness to project force in the IOR by 2025.
14. Pakistan. Pakistan has been and will go on to be a beginning of problem for India. It sits astride the critical energy line of lifes from the Persian Gulf to India. Its pigboat fleet offers it a believable sea denial capableness. In add-on its programs for geting more P3C Orion from USA would farther heighten its surveillance capablenesss and would be a continual menace to Indian assets.
15. Excess Regional Presence. A CBG runing off the seashore of a state is like a new neighbor and non needfully a wanted 1. This neighbor can travel 500 nanometer in a twenty-four hours and could endanger a different portion of a state on every surrogate twenty-four hours. The excess regional presence is a existent menace and states like the USA, UK, Russia and France are capable of exercising this presence.
MARITIME DOCTRINE AND NAVAL ROLES
16. In the military context philosophy is defined as the cardinal rules by which military forces guide their actions in support of national aims. The overall military philosophy is besides the formal look of the national attitude towards war and towards the usage of military as a agency to accomplish political terminals. The nautical philosophy fulfils this map for the usage of military power at and from the sea[ 4 ]. The nautical philosophy provides the guidelines within which the existent force construction is created. It is therefore of import to analyze the maritime philosophy to get at a suited force construction.
17. The philosophy brings out the diverse and complex missions the Indian Navy would be required to set about in the hereafter. The assorted functions of the Navy as defined in the Maritime Doctrine are military, diplomatic, constabulary and benign.
18. Military Role. The military function defines certain cardinal aims for the Indian Navy which are relevant in today ‘s geo-strategic scenario and would go on to be relevant in the hereafter. These aims are defined as follows[ 5 ]: –
( a ) Disincentive against war or intercession.
( B ) Decisive military triumph in instance of war.
( degree Celsius ) Security of India ‘s territorial unity, citizens and off-shore assets from sea-borne menace.
( vitamin D ) Influence personal businesss on land.
( vitamin E ) Safeguard India ‘s mercantile Marine and nautical trade.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Safeguard India ‘s national involvements and nautical security.
19. Diplomatic Role. Naval Diplomacy entails the usage of naval forces in support of foreign policy aims. The diplomatic aims are as follows[ 6 ]: –
( a ) Strengthen political dealingss and good will.
( B ) Strengthen defense mechanism dealingss with friendly provinces.
( degree Celsius ) Portray believable defense mechanism position and capableness.
( vitamin D ) Strengthen nautical security in IOR.
( vitamin E ) Promote regional and planetary stableness.
20. Constabulary Role. The increasing grounds of maritime offense has brought into crisp focal point the constabulary function that naval forcess have to execute. In this function forces are employed to implement jurisprudence of the land or an international authorization. The constabulary aims are as follows[ 7 ]: –
( a ) Coastal defense mechanism.
( B ) Security of EEZ.
( degree Celsius ) Good order at sea.
21. Benign Role. The benign function is so named because force has no portion to play in its executing, nor is the possible to use force a necessary requirement for set abouting these operations. The chief aims of this function are[ 8 ]: –
( a ) Promote civil safety and security.
( B ) Project national soft power.
22. Functions and Capabilities of the Future Navy. The diplomatic function of the Navy is likely to turn in the hereafter. Forces offering greater purchase, capable of operating in distant Waterss would be the demand of the hr. Keeping stableness in the litorals would intend accent on power projection and littoral operations. However, sea control would go on to be a requirement. SLOC protection and interdiction would besides keep their importance. Asymmetric menaces and battling buccaneering, drug and gun running, nautical terrorist act would derive importance as besides the ability to supply alleviation during natural catastrophes.
FORCE STRUCTURE PLANNING FACTORS
23. World category naval forcess are ‘Built ‘ and non ‘Bought ‘ . Therefore, indigenisation and ego trust in war vessel production, arms and detectors will play an of import function in gaining the naval forces ‘s dream of geting regional power projection capablenesss. With the economic revival, good established industrial base and paces made in warship production, India has demonstrated its purpose to be a ‘Builders Navy ‘ .
24. Gross Domestic Product. The GDP of a state is a productive capacity of its people and dictates the portion of the pie that the services are likely to acquire. The GDP has grown at an mean rate of seven per centum over the last few old ages. The portion of defense mechanism, as portion of GDP is estimated at 13.5 per centum of gross outgo. For planning intents, GDP growing rate is taken as 6.5 per centum and defense mechanism outgo is taken at 2.75 per centum of GDP. At the present growing rate, a figure of three per centum is considered realistic between 2020 and 2025.
25. Tendencies in Naval Budgets. The naval budget as per centum of defense mechanism budget has varied from 13.25 per centum in 1995-96 to 15 per centum in 2010-11. This figure is likely to travel up to 20 per centum by 2025. Soon, the Navy ‘s capital to gross portion is 60:40 per centum[ 9 ]. The Navy being a capital intensive service, this ratio is likely to increase to 65:35 per centum by 2025. Two major constituents of capital budget include ‘Naval Fleet ‘ , and ‘Air Craft and Aero Engines ‘ . Naval fleet approximately histories for 75 % of the capital spending and caters for the acquisition of ships and pigboats.
26. The force degrees are straight relative to the figure of one-year acquisitions and the period for which it is in service. The larger the ship, the thirster is the clip taken to plan and construct it. Taking a typical destroyer/frigate, it takes about 10 to 12 old ages from authorities blessing to commissioning, if the ship is designed and built in India. Assured support, therefore is perfectly indispensable for any planned modernization. Historically, the destiny of naval forcess has been linked to the destiny of their state ‘s economic system[ 10 ]. Fortunately, the Indian economic system is making really good and funding for modernization in the hereafter should non be a job.
Warship Production Capability
27. The hull histories for one 3rd the cost of the ship, whilst arms and detectors account for 42 per centum with machinery and aides accounting for balance 25 per centum. The Indian Navy has achieved self trust in hull and machinery constituents, nevertheless, the existent challenge remains the arms and detectors, a bulk of which are still imported. The capablenesss of our shipyards and the DRDO would play a major function in accomplishing the coveted force construction.
28. Yard Capabilities. There are three defense mechanism shipyards under the Ministry of Defence, the Mazagaon Dock Ltd ( MDL ) , Garden Reach Ship Builders and Engineers ( GRSE ) and Goa Shipyard Ltd ( GSL ) . The Cochin Shipyard ( CSL ) and Hindustan Shipyard Ltd ( HSL ) are the other two Government Sector Undertakings, involved in ship edifice. These shipyards have displayed major promotions in ship designing and indigenisation of platforms, although there are still some insufficiencies that need to be addressed. The capableness of constructing ships in itself is non plenty, it is the rate at which they are built along with their cost effectivity and capablenesss that is of import.
29. Indian Yards are ill-famed for cost and clip over-runs and even today we have to import ships to run into the demands of the turning Navy. The primary ground for this is the antediluvian equipment and edifice methods in our shipyards. Time and cost overproductions can earnestly set the Force Structuring off path. Therefore, shipyard productiveness has to better to a degree where they can run into all the demands of the Navy. To modernize the Navy, we must foremost modernize our shipyards so that they are capable of presenting quality ships on agenda.
30. The promotion in engineering has had far making effects on naval operations taking to new constructs of operations. Technology will better operational handiness, dependability and sustainability of forces. The initiation of force multipliers like orbiters, UAVs and improved arms and detectors can assist in get the better ofing the numerical restriction of force degrees. Technology has increased the transparence of the battleground and with advanced PGMs, made it possible to present a big volume of fire really exactly and at the same time in different countries of operation. Therefore, engineering will play a major portion in modeling the force construction of the Navy in the hereafter.
Force STRUCTURE IN 2025
31. The Indian Navy ‘s position planning in footings of ‘force-levels ‘ is now driven by a conceptual displacement from ‘numbers ‘ of platforms, that is, from the old ‘bean-counting ‘ doctrine to one that concentrates upon ‘capabilities ‘ . There are soon 40 ships and pigboats on order. The preferable pick of investing ships has been through the autochthonal path. There are soon 34 ships and pigboats on order from Indian shipyards and the initiation programme is go oning apace[ 11 ].
32. The present force degree is to a great extent biased towards older ships. Almost 50 per centum of these ships would finish their service life by 2025. Besides, the present force composing is biased towards smaller ships with lesser figure of ships that can really project the ‘Blue Water ‘ capableness of the Navy. The present force construction points toward the demand for pressing modernization of the Indian Navy for India to play its coveted function in the nautical country of involvement.
33. Aircraft Carriers. The Indian Navy would necessitate to hold a lower limit of three aircraft bearers with one runing on each seashore and one under care. These bearers would organize the Carrier Battle Groups ( CBG ) that are the first instruments in accomplishing sea control. The Indian Navy is on path to accomplish this with Vikramaditya and the two AD ships being built at Cochin shipyard, albeit one after another. Viraat is likely to be decommissioned by 2015, hence, the IN should hold at least three bearers by 2025.
34. Nuclear Submarines. The atomic pigboat is an ideal strategic arm and possesses a believable second work stoppage capableness. The Navy should take to hold at least four such pigboats by 2025, so that at least one, if non two, are on patrol at all times. This is a distinguishable possibility with India accomplishing the capableness to construct its ain SSN with the launch of Arihant and the initiation of Akula category SSNs from Russia.
35. Destroyers and Frigates. These ships are the existent workhorses of the Navy, both in peace and war. The Indian Navy soon has 13 frigates out of which 6/7 will be decommissioned by 2025. The Navy should take to hold at least 20 frigates by 2025. The two staying Shivalik category ( Project 17 ) and the three follow on Talwar category frigates should be in service by 2014. Seven Project 17A frigates will be built at MDL and GRSE. An extra order for three to five more such frigates would enable the Navy to accomplish the needed force degrees by 2025. The Navy has eight destroyers on day of the month and should take to hold at least 12 by 2025. The R Class destroyers would necessitate to be replaced between 2015 and 2025. Three Kolkata Class ( Project 15 A ) destroyers are being built at MDL. Four more ships are planned as follow on of the Kolkata category under the Project 15 B. Therefore, an extra order of three destroyers needs to be placed to accomplish the coveted force degrees by 2025.
36. Submarines. Submarines are a critical portion of the Naval Fleet and are ideal for sea denial operations. Their operational value in our Waterss is far greater than anyplace else as the hydrological conditions afford many advantages to the pigboat. The Navy has 15 pigboats, including the Kilo category and the German 209 category. However most of these would be approaching the terminal of their operational lives by 2025. The MDL is already constructing six Scorpene category pigboats under TOT from France. The Indian Navy demands to hold at least 16 conventional pigboats by 2025. Therefore, there is a demand for the Navy to order eight to ten extra pigboats. An RFP for six pigboats has been raised under Undertaking 75 ( I ) , with a proposal to build three at MDL and one at HSL with the other two being straight imported. There would still be a deficit of four pigboats which will hold to be made good with an extra order under the same undertaking.
37. Amphibious Forces. We have a modest amphibian capableness to look after amphibian assault demands in our immediate vicinity. The Navy desperately needs an expeditionary capableness to set about our regional duty. The LSTs would non be able to run into such a capableness. The Navy has to look at investing LPDs, the first of which has been received from USA. Jalashwa would be decommissioned by 2025 but the force degree of LPDs that needs to be held in 2025 is at least four. A program to plan and construct the same is being put into force and the Navy should hold its four LPDs by 2025.
38. Support Ships. To be a true ‘Blue Water ‘ Navy, the capableness of operating anywhere in the Indian Ocean and beyond is a must. To enable this, the Navy needs more fleet oilers. The naval forces should hold at least four oilers by 2025 to back up the two CBGs. Soon, the Navy has two oilers and two have been ordered from Italy and are likely to be commissioned by 2010 and 2012 severally. Therefore, the Navy would be able to accomplish the coveted force degree good before 2025.
39. Corvettes. The naval forces has 20 missile corvettes but merely four ASW corvettes. The former are in equal figure, nevertheless the ASW corvettes are grossly unequal. Four are being built at GRSE but these will merely replace the 1s already in service. The Navy demands to well heighten this capableness and should hold at least 12 ASW corvettes by 2025. Besides, the missile corvettes in service will necessitate to be replaced as they complete their service life.
40. Mine Counter Measure Vessel. Mine warfare has been efficaciously used in the yesteryear and the Indian Navy demands to hold believable capableness to counter it. The Navy ‘s MCM vass will be decommissioned over the following few old ages. The Navy has to develop a believable mine hunting capableness and a force degree of at least 12 such vass is a must by 2025.
41. Offshore Patrol Vessels. Presence and surveillance is an of import mission of the Navy and high value ships like destroyers and frigates should non be utilised for this. Soon, the Navy has merely five OPVs with four under building at GSL and an extra order for five placed on Pipavav Shipyard. The force degree envisaged by 2025 is 12 to efficaciously police the ODA and islands as besides monitor the transportation lanes.
42. Fast Attack Crafts. LIMO is a clear and present danger in the present twenty-four hours scenario. The high velocity FAC is ideally designed to counter this menace. Each major naval port should hold at least four FACs by 2025. The GRSE is constructing 10 H2O jet FACs for the Navy, some of which are already in committee. An extra order for at least 10 more FACs needs to be placed.
43. MR Aircraft. Long Range Maritime Patrol and Surveillance capableness is a major failing of the Indian Navy. The TU-142 and the IL 38 are the pillar of our MR capableness, nevertheless, most of them will be out of service by 2025. The Navy is geting Eight P8 I Poseidon from the USA. The coveted force degree of MR aircraft is 16 by 2025 and therefore the Navy should look at geting more such aircraft on a progressive footing.
44. Strike Aircraft. The work stoppage aircraft fleet of the Navy soon comprises of the Sea Harriers. The Harriers are likely to be phased out by 2015. The first squadron of MiG 29K has been commissioned to augment the work stoppage capableness and run onboard Vikramaditya. The Naval LCAs would replace the Harrier and would run from the AD ship. The Navy should imagine holding four work stoppage squadrons by 2025, two each of LCAs and MiG 29s.
45. Helicopters. The current chopper fleet of the Navy is ageing and will shortly go disused. The force construction in 2025 should hold at least 24 multi function choppers and 30 to 36 light public-service corporation choppers.
46. UAVs. UAVs are a major force multiplier. The present strength of the UAVs needs to be increased such that there is a UAV flight in each major naval port by 2025.
“ Whoever controls the Indian Ocean dominates Asia. This Ocean is the key to the seven seas. In the twenty-first century, the fate of the universe would be decided on its Waterss. ”
Alfred Thayer Mahan
47. Modernization of warfare schemes and techniques, and acceptance of technologically advanced constructs are ineffectual exercisings if the basic construction of the Navy is non given the timely attending that is due. The creative activity of a balanced Navy is an indispensable facet of any modernization, and the deficit has to be made good by the political committedness to a sustained edifice programme. Assured support and indigenisation are perfectly indispensable towards accomplishing the envisaged force construction. Bettering the ship building capablenesss of our paces and the developmental capablenesss of DRDO are perfectly indispensable for the Indian Navy to be a force to think with by 2025.
48. India is a nautical state and its hereafter lies at sea in more ways than one, non merely for ‘Nuclear Deterrence ‘ but besides for trade, economic prosperity, influence, diplomatic enterprises and a host of other things.A Today, more than of all time before, India is making out, prosecuting the universe, speaking to the universe and trading with the universe. That universe lies across the Oceans, non across the Himalayas. To make that universe, to prosecute that universe, to act upon that universe and to guarantee and heighten our security, we need to spread out and modernize our Navy. WhileA A the Indian Navy has come a long manner since independency, and is today steady and on class towards a bright hereafter, the gait of enlargement and modernization demands to be speeded up if it is to adequately back up India ‘s standing in the comity of states in the 20 firstA century[ 12 ].
( AS Sangha )
Wellington Lt Cdr
04 Sep 10
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