Research Task

Research Task

Aims & Objectives The aims and objectives of this research task is to look at: The care and educational needs of the children in our care and establish why it is of the utmost importance that these care needs are met at all times, To identify why the care needs of the children are important, and also why the structure of play within our school settings within the Foundation Phase through a theoretical perspective promotes and encourages development, self – esteem and confidence. Criteria 1 Provide a rationale for the identification of the care and learning needs of all children Rationale

Legislation The United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) was brought into effect on the15th January 1992 and was brought into force to run parallel with the Children Act 1989. The UNCRC is a comprehensive instrument which sets out rights that define universal principles and norms for children. It not only sets out these fundamental rights and freedoms, but also takes into account the need for children to have special assistance and protection due to their vulnerability. It is the most complete statement of children’s rights ever produced and has 42 substantive articles.

It is also the first legal instrument to focus solely on the child, regardless of where the child was born and to whom, and regardless of sex, religion and social origin. http://clicon. co. uk/news/. Article 23 paragraph 3 states , The setting should be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child’s achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development’. ww. dcsf. gov. uk/everychildmatters/strategy The Childcare Act 2006 provides the legal framework for the creation of the new Early Years Foundation Phase (in Wales). From September 2008, the Foundation Phase will be the framework of learning, development and welfare for children in the age range from birth to the August after their fifth birthday the settings will be required to meet the learning, development and welfare requirements in the Foundation Phase package It is important that practitioners identify both the care and learning needs of the children at the outset of the child joining the care or school setting.

This is done to establish on the onset the development of the child on entry to the setting through a baseline assessment. Children of all ages can relax and settle within the school setting when all of their learning needs and care needs have been established and met by the teaching staff. The caring of the child involves helping them to become independent and. this includes being responsible for both their nutritional and hygiene needs. ‘Through encouragement and praise, children are given the confidence to continue their learning experience’ (Tassoni. P. (2008) p. 89) Play is the key to a child’s health, growth, and development and overall well – being. This is particularly important in a child’s early years; play is linked to the growth of the cognitive areas such as growth, stimulation and also development. Stimulation and supporting children are therefore essential. This means that practitioners need to have a very good understanding of how children learn and develop. Children’s brains are stimulated when they play, especially when they have varied and interesting opportunities, stimulation for the brain is vital for its growth. Piaget (1951) distinguishes between play, which is performed for the child’s sake, and intellectual activity and learning in which there is an external aim or purpose’. Richard Gross (2005) However children who have play deprivation; stimulation and exercise are likely to have delayed development. A child’s development is shaped both by what they are born with and also with the experiences they have. Criteria 2 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of different approaches to planning for children’s care and learning Good planning is essential for ractitioners and child-minders to execute because it ensures equality for all children. According to the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF), good planning is the key to making children’s learning effective, exciting, varied and also progressive. It enables us as practitioners to build up our knowledge about how individual children learn and make progress Planning for children involves long term plans, weekly plans, IEP’s, and daily plans. The planning for the weekly activities is coordinated by the classroom teacher.

This is achieved through Planning, Preparation and assessment (PPA). The focus of PPA is the teaching and learning of the pupils taught by each teacher… It is crucial that purposeful PPA time is an integral part of the raising standards agenda. Such activities may include working with other members of staff as well as other professional’s Short term plans (daily or weekly) build on what we know about the child through observations or assessments. Individual Education Plans (IEP) are put in place after a period of observations or assessments.

Also before an IEP is put in place consent from the child’s parents ‘must be granted. The child’s teacher gathers relevant information, including details from the child’s parents about their child’s health, development etc. The child’s name and details are then placed on an SEN register, along with the special help to be offered, such as periods of special attention or specific teaching methods within the normal everyday classroom. A review date is then specified and subject to change if the child needs a continuous IEP. See article 23 of the UNCRC on page 1 under the title Legislation According to Hutchin 1999 p. 25 ‘These build up a picture of the child’s knowledge or interests, the child’s skills and also their needs’ (Hutchin (1999) p. 25. ) Long-term plans are referred to as schemes; these schemes relate to the school improvement plan (SIP) or a development plan as set by ESTYN. Medium plans which are also known as curriculum plans are applied either on a daily, weekly or monthly basis and are based on the observations and assessments on the child by the relevant member of staff observing the activity.

The staff within the setting consults with a wide range of sources… Planning success requires the quality of planning which in term generates both happy and successful children. There are a number of approaches to planning the curriculum; the main approaches to planning within the Foundation Phase these are: Structured, Unstructured, Experiential and Thematic. Planning is the key to effectiveness of any early years setting. The majority of settings find a way of planning the curriculum which suits the needs of the children.

The plans will also vary according to the objectives or areas of the development/learning to be considered. ‘Each child will need to be considered and observed in order to be provided with the appropriate activities and experiences within the setting’. (Tassoni. P 2008) The Planning Cycle Planning is an important aspect of a practitioner’s day; this is done in order for the day to run smoothly and effectively. Practitioners should implement the planning on both a daily and weekly basis and if need be considering the child’s needs involve the child’s parents.

However we must never plan the day so stringently that there is no room for manoeuvre or improvement. Through activities we can implement our observations and keep us as practitioners in good stead. This will be implemented in the way we plan our activities and keeping the child central to the activity at all times. Our evaluations are judged by exactly how much progress the child has actually made over a period of time. As practitioners our evaluations need to be continuous and also systematic. The children within our care are constantly changing; this is the reason why we carry out evaluations.

With this in mind we may need to alter our classroom routines and also the activities that we preform. Practitioners benefit from evaluating not just the children in our care but also the activities and resources that we use. The planning cycle diagram below illustrates the continuous cycle of observing and assessing the children within our care, evaluating the results of our classroom setting and also the implementation of any changes that we as practitioners deem as necessary, also the planning of future care of the children together with appropriate activities. WWW. owto. co. uk Diagram 1The Planning Cycle ROUTINES Routines are very important in the development of a child and are a very important part of a child’s play. Routines in the setting give a child a sense of security which in turn benefits the child from the experiences of the day. This is particularly important in childcare settings such as pre-school nurseries. If any changes must be adapted within the child’s routines then they must be done and dealt with in a sensitive manner. This change if dealt with sensitively enables the child to remain secure and feel safe.

If at all possible any changes in the child’s routines must be explained to the child or the child’s parents. Special attention should be take into consideration with children with special needs for example a child with Autism. ‘This is essential because an Autistic child likes his/her routines to be adhered too. Changes in any established routine can make the Autistic child distressed, anxious or even angry; such angriness could provoke tantrums’. (Dare. A. 1997) The routine structure could also be disrupted due to a different carer collecting the child from the nursery.

If this is the case then it has to be important for the child to be notified as soon as possible. This must be done as calmly as possible as not to upset the child. If the child as a comforter then it would be a good idea for the child to be given it before the child is sent home. This comforter would act as a security device for the child. Criteria 6 Analyse evidence of the professional skills required when planning for children’s care and learning. This is an extension of criterion 2 Having a highly skilled workforce in the Foundation Phase is crucial in the early years settings.

The quality of provision has a significant impact on the child’s development, so it is imperative that the staff acquire the skills which determine them as professional and effective practitioners. The use of effective communication is an essential attr4ibute that practitioners must engage in. Has a practitioner we must communicate at all times with the children and listen to them at all times. Being listened to is one of the basic needs of a child. When they have views and opinions, it is imperative that they are listened to and valued at all times.

The UNCRC states ‘The child has a right to say what they think should happen, when adults make decisions that affect them, and to have their opinion taken into account. ’ www. anationalvoice. org As practitioners we can show we are listening by giving the children our utmost attention, adapting our body language and maintaining eye contact at all times. Within my setting I make sure that I engage with the children at all times by making sure I have eye contact by making sure I go down to their level at all times. Through this the child always feels valued at all times and it also helps them to gain confidence and self esteem. Tassoni states Children need to feel valued by the adults around them. As practitioners we can value children in our care by listening properly and being attentive, and acknowledging their efforts, ideas and interests. As practitioners we must also listen to their feats and concerns’ (Tassoni. P 2007, p6) When conversing with children, it is important that consideration is given to the language we use. As a practitioner, I use language that is clear and age appropriate, this ensures understanding. This enables communication to be two way. Using inappropriate language makes the child confused and also unable to contribute in the conversation.

Effective communication also considers the tone of the voice, the pace and volume of our speech. If children are spoken to too quickly they may not understand what we are saying. Communication and relationships with parents are also very important and also skills that practitioners need to develop. This can be achieved by building sound parent teacher relationships. It is considered best practice for settings to adapt the ‘open door’ policy; this encourages parents to speak to practitioners. When parents feel at ease, they are more likely to ask about their child’s development.

This helps them build their own confidence and self – esteem as they are more able to support their child at home. For example through the child’s homework etc. Criteria 3 Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of child development theory that supports children’s identified care needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham H. Maslow (pictured below right) felt as though conditioning theories did not completely capture the complexity of human behaviour. In 1943 a paper called A Theory of Human Motivation; Maslow presented the idea that human actions are directed toward goal attainment.

Maslow based his study on the writings of other psychologists, for example Albert Einstein; and people he knew who clearly met the standard of self actualization. Any given behaviour could satisfy several functions at the same time; for instance, going to a rugby match could satisfy one’s needs for self-esteem and for social interaction. http://bolstablog. files. wordpress. com/2009/02/abraham-maslow. jpg? w=153&h=207 http://weareindigo. net/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs1. jpg Diagram 2 Maslow’s Triangle When a child climbs the steps of the pyramid he/she reaches self actualization.

At the bottom of the pyramid. Lays the Psychological needs which a child needs as the basic needs of the child such as food, water, breathing and sleep. The next level is Safety Needs which includes security. Order and stability, the family environment and health. The third level of need is Love & Belonging which are the psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem level”, the level of success and status (from self and others).

At the very top of the pyramid “needs for self actualization” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding Maslow organised the needs of human beings into a prioritized order, with basis such as food, water and shelter coming before more sophisticated needs such as stimulation and curiosity. It is also very important to regularly review any routines and activities to ensure that they continue to meet the child’s needs. It is very important to actively plan to meet children’s needs because there is otherwise a danger of some children’s needs being overlooked, these could include children with special needs.

TLev Vygotsky 1896 – 1934 he major theme of Vygotsky’s (pictured right) theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition. Vygotsky (1978) p. 57 states: http://images. suite101. com/923889_com_vygotskyle. png “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts.

All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. ” Vygotsky (1978) A second aspect of Vygotsky’s theory is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage in social behavior which is developed in the home corner. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance exceeds what can be attained alone.

Bruner felt that the development of language was the key to children being able to move from the iconic mode to the symbolic mode. The value of routines Routines are a valuable within the Foundation Phase, especially in the early years. They allow children to learn in a secure situation which provides the children with security. Routines vary from setting to setting, but are generally central around meal times rest or sleep. A good routine is often at the heart of helping babies and young children to feel settled.

Counting spoonful’s as an eight month old eats and says ‘all gone’ develops a very early sense of mathematics and language. This is the approach taken within the ‘Birth to Three Matters’ and also other frameworks that the home countries are developing. Routines also need to be adapted to meet the wishes of the child’s parents, e. g. cultural and religious needs. If as practitioners we change an aspect of a routine because of the needs of a particular child. It is important that we ensure the child is not singled out for any reason regarding creed or culture.

Criteria 4 Demonstrate the application of relevant theoretical knowledge to play, Learning and education to meet children’s identified learning needs. The sentiments of the Rumbold Report (1990) on play still stand firm today. It states that: ‘Play that is well planned and pleasurable helps children to think, increase their understanding and also to improve their language competence’ Rumbold Report (1990) Within the Foundation Phase play is central to the child’s learning, and provides opportunities for children within the early years to engage in free play.

It is an integral part of a child’s development it is a purposeful experience and right for all children. Therefore the learning and needs of the child is central at all times. There have been two main influences on the theory of play; these being Fredrich Froebel (1782 – 1852) and also Maria Montessori (1870 – 1952). Froebel favoured the child centred approach which was adopted by the Foundation Phase and many of his ideas are what we know as free play. He believed children needed real experiences and also to be physically active.

Froebel believed that there was a link between play and learning. Montessori on the other hand believed children needed structured learning opportunities. The involvement and interests of adults is important to play, Montessori saw the adult as the supporter in the learning but she did not see the value of pretend play, which did not have a focus on a child’s learning. Like Piaget, Montessori saw children as active in their own learning. Within the nursery setting in which I work we have what is called the ‘hospital corner’.

This area enables the children to dress up as hospital staff members of staff, such as nurses and doctors. Each child has a name tag and they designate themselves to the job description of their choice. There are also diverse medical instrumentation such as plasters and bandages. Vygotsky refers to this as the development of ‘social rules’. These ‘social rules’ establish when children play house (or in our case Hospital) and adopt the roles of different members of the role play. Additionally there are other areas within the environment to encourage free play these include the sand and water areas.

These areas develop the child’s ability to learn through the world of play; and to also develop self – esteem and self reliance. It also enhances the child’s personality. Erickson stipulates that a child’s personalities are not forced but they keep on changing over the course of a child’s lifetime. According to Piaget a child’s play provides a relaxed atmosphere. Through this a child’s learning can easily occur. Piaget suggests that play is not the same as learning. Cognitive accommodation development requires both assimilation and adaptation.

The child that pretends often imposes a schema on the world, this is called assimilation. A child that is at play imitates something that they have observed, or have been put through like a specific type of abuse for example. Sigmund Freud saw this as a means of releasing painful and distressing incidents or memories. This can sometimes be used as a means of discovery. I. e. if the child as been subjected to sexual abuse. The child’s drawings or playing with dolls is a means of expressing the abuse by the child that as been subjected to the abuse. This is also known as catharsis Piaget suggests That children absorb experiences into structures which they already posses through the process of assimilation. This contrasts with the process of accommodation. During which structures within the child have to be modified and adjusted in order to take in experiences which do not fit into the structures which are already in existence. ’ (Piaget. J 1968) Whereas, Lev Vygotsky believed, in the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Through ZPD Vygotsky believed children had the ability to go to the next step within the learning process through their play with support from the practitioners and their parents. See page 9). Criteria 7 Analyse the evidence of the role of play in children’s learning. This is an extension of criterion 4 Through play, children have freedom to explore, experiment and take control of their learning, learning through play is an important and natural process and central to the Foundation Phase Isaacs and Vygotsky believe that children learn as they play. According to Isaacs: ‘Play is a child’s life and the means by which the child comes to understand the world he/she lives in. ’ (Macintyre, 2001, p3)

The value of play can’t be emphasised enough, as it’s through this channel that learning becomes meaningful and essential skills are developed. Through play, children develop a sense of enquiry, creativity and imagination. ‘ the development of creativity and critical thinking in the early years is dependent on children having opportunity to imagine what might be, to form their own ideas and theories about the world, to make and test predictions and to enjoy risk taking and challenges. ’ (Brunton. 2009, pxii)

The role of the practitioner in the early years is to increase the complexity of the narrative and ask the children during the set activity open ended questions. This extends the child’s vocabulary and enhances their ideas and thinking. This can also be extended during role play. Role play/ or pretend play is an ideal medium for children to rehearse adult roles, practice new skills and express their feelings and emotions. ‘In a role play it is possible to overcome many of the problems created by gender and cultural stereotyping by providing appropriate resources and equipment for the children to play with’ Tassoni.

P & Bulman. K. 1999 page 167 Within the earliest stages of development a child’s imagination and creativity will be stimulated. The home corner is the natural transition for the child who has played with a tea set. From playing with a simple doll the child will progress to playing with a doll with removable cloths, a bed, a name and later a personality. Pretend play is where children talk to toys objects etc. This is also known as imaginative play. A child acts out what they see and feel using words.

As a child gets older practitioners see them during role play taking on the roles of not just people around them like their parents but also professionals; that the child sees on a daily basis like nurses, doctors, policemen and firemen etc. for example ‘I’m the mammy you’re the baby and your being naughty’. Role models such as the police, fire brigade, and lolly pop lady/man can be brought into the school to describe and explain to the children what they do in their jobs etc.

In the setting in which I work we frequently have professional members of the public to come in and explain their jobs and let the children sit in their fire engines and police cars, Role play helps a child to develop language and communicational skills, and also to help the child socialise. It also has emotional benefits for children as they can act out their fantasies and also fears. ‘By offering the children the opportunity to meet a variety of people both adults and children, from outside their own narrow circle practitioners can encourage the child to begin to understand other cultures and backgrounds.

This exposure to a whole range of role – models will challenge the stereotypes that can start to form at an early age. ’ Tassoni. P. & Bulman. K. 1999 page 85 Criteria 5 Provide evidence of why it is important to establish an environment that meets the care and learning needs of all children Fredrich Froebel believes that learning environments should stimulate the child and also help to direct their imagination and behaviour. The environment layout should be flexible to incorporate the ease of movement should be essential (Health and Safety Act 1974) and adhered to.

To support the development of the learning environment within the Foundation Phase both indoors and outdoors should be safe, secure, attractive and a constant source of stimulation for the children’s learning. There should be a good variety of diverse resources to suit the children’s physical and language development. This enables every child to make progress according to their ability. According to the Welsh Assembly Government ‘A useful resource for the learning environment can include visitors from the local communities (the local police visited my setting to inform the staff nd parents about internet safety especially sites such as Facebook)), from various cultures and from areas of particular interest to the children’ Welsh Assembly Government (1), (2008), p18 On occasions a new or diverse piece of equipment should be added to enhance the stimulation of the child. Play is the key to a child’s health, growth, stimulation and over – all well being. This is important within a child’s early years. Play is linked to the growth of the cognitive areas. So therefore the stimulation and supporting of children are essential.

This means that as practitioners we need to have a very good understanding of how children learn and develop. Children’s brains are stimulated when they play especially when they have varied and interesting opportunities, stimulation for the brain is vital for its growth. The dividing of areas into smaller areas within the setting enables the children to focus more easily and also help them feel more secure. So the dividing of the environment can help with the supervision of the children. Within the Foundation Phase in Wales the adult ratio is 1 – 8 and enables the children to play in diverse areas.

This ratio is very important both to indoor and outdoor environments. ‘O’Hagan states ‘that the environment should be well planned, safe appropriate, stimulating and interesting, with a verity of equipment and activities available at different skills and conceptual levels to offer challenges’ (O ‘Hagen, 1999, p. 89) The Forest Schools initiative encourages children to learn through play experiences in forest environments and also school gardens that are made in rural schools that have no access to forest environments.

Through these experiences children are encouraged to learn about the outdoor environment through natural activities. Forest Schools is child lead. Children are given the freedom to explore through taking risks. Forest schools is all about taking risks and not being afraid to making a mistake… Tina Bruce states: ‘A child, who has never taken risks or experimented with different ways of doing things, will not be confident, or is an active thinker. Instead; such children only know how to carry out adult instructions or ideas.

They do not become imaginative or creative’ (Tina Bruce 2007, p75) Through regular sessions within the same area of woodland with their teachers and a Forest School Leader, children are seen to develop, personal confidence, self – esteem and social – skills, a wider range of physical skills that are usually developed indoors, a greater understanding about their own natural and man – made environments, a greater understanding about wider environments and also motivation and a positive attitude to learning.

The importance of the environment is recognised as one of the four key areas of the early years Foundation Phase. The environment plays in the supporting and also extension of the child’s development and learning and is based on the principle that early years’ provision should offer a solid grounding for future learning through a developmentally appropriate curriculum. It enhances children’s learning experiences and enables them to be creative, imaginative and have fun whilst learning. It has been designed to help all children flourish, whatever their stage of development or learning ability. The Welsh Assembly Government is committed to ensuring that all children have access to rich stimulating environments, free from inappropriate risk, and full of challenge, thereby offering them the opportunity to explore through freely chosen play both themselves and the world. The Welsh Assembly Government recognises that the impact of modern society on children’s lives has significantly restricted their opportunity to play freely and has resulted in a poverty of play opportunities in the general environment.

It is therefore committed to encouraging the creation of high quality ‘compensatory’ play provision that is appropriate, local, stimulating and challenging for all children in Wales. ’ Welsh Assembly Government (2) October 2002 The Foundation Phase allows children to explore the world around them by giving them more opportunities to gain first hand experiences through play and active involvement rather than by completing exercises in books. Children are being given the chance to take part in relevant practical activities that are fun and enjoyable and match their own individual developmental stages.

Within the Foundation Phase it is essential that there is continuity when planning for children’s development. As such it is important to consider children’s backgrounds and cultural beliefs and also their learning experiences at home as a starting point when planning the activities.. Maria Montessori 1870-1952 encouraged children to organise their own activities and absorb information from their environments. Froebel’s children however used both the indoors and outdoors environments within the planning of the curriculum in his kindergartens.

In Reggio Emilia schools however time for discussion, planning and preparation is built into the working week (Dahlberg 2000). By Planning an activity practitioners in the Foundation Phase can be confident that the child’s learning experiences and opportunities should be identified. A planned curriculum activity; i. e. within the nursery can sometimes be a difficult. If the activity is play structured (The Foundation Phase) and exciting the child will stay on task. With this in mind the children within our care will be given the opportunity to develop fully and succeed. Criteria 8

Analyse the evidence which supports the need for practitioners to plan effectively. When working with children in our setting we must ensure and consider the following needs at all times. The ages of the children, their gender, culture and ethnicity the child’s learning needs and also their learning styles. Meeting the needs of the child is crucial in their emotional development. The children need to see themselves as strong, capable and good as preserving. As practitioners our role is to ensure that activities, opportunities and the way we work with children give them confidence.

Meeting the needs of all children means observing what we do and also what is provided for the children through the resources that we use. Practitioners need to think about whether each child in our care is benefiting through the planning of the activities. This could mean that the activities and also our approaches that we are using need to be changed or adapted to suit the individual needs of the child so that they are able to achieve and succeed through each activity that we as practitioners provide through the PPA that we do.

All children in our care need to be valued and to be given opportunities to fulfil their potential. Within this period children are increasingly aware of how well they are doing compared to their peers and other children within their classroom. Criteria 9 Use the evidence from the literature review to evaluate why it is important to plan to meet the care and learning needs of all children To summarise the research task, it is clear from the literature that…………… play is the key to a child’s health, growth, and development and overall well being.

This is particularly important in a child’s early years which as been laid down by the Foundation Phase. Play is linked to the growth of the cognitive areas such as growth, stimulation and also development. The stimulation and the supporting of children within our care are therefore essential. This means that practitioners need to have a very good understanding of how children learn and develop. A child’s brain stimulates when they play especially when they have varied and interesting opportunities, stimulation for the brain is vital for its growth.

To achieve this, quality planning is essential for practitioners to execute because it ensures equality for all children. According to the DCSF, good planning is the key to making a child’s learning effective, exciting, varied and also progressive. The planning for the weekly activities is governed by the classroom teacher through a process called PPA. Planning also includes long – term plans, weekly or daily plans. According to Maslow it is very important to actively plan to meet the children’s needs because there is otherwise a danger of some children’s needs being over looked.

These could include children with special needs. Vygotsky believes that the range of skill that can be developed with adult guidance exceeds what can be attained alone. Within the Foundation Phase play is central to the child’s learning and provides opportunities for children in the early years to engage in free play. There has been two main influences on the theory of play. These being Froebel and Montessori. Froebel favoured the child centred approach which was adopted by the Foundation Phase and many of his ideas are what we know today as free play.

Montessori on the other hand believed that children needed structured learning opportunities. Froebel also believes that the learning environments should stimulate the child and also help to direct their imagination and behaviour. The importance of the environment is recognised as one of the four key areas of the early years Foundation Phase. The environment plays in the supporting and also extension of the child’s development and learning and is based on the principle that early years’ provision should offer a solid grounding for future learning through a developmentally appropriate curriculum.

It enhances children’s learning experiences and enables them to be creative, imaginative and have fun whilst learning. It has been designed to help all children flourish, whatever their stage of development or learning ability. This can be explored in the way that a child uses role/pretend play. This gives children the opportunity to explore their environment in an imaginative way. This could take place in the home corner. Role play is an ideal medium for children to rehearse adult roles and situations, practice new skills and also express their feelings and emotions.

As practitioners our role is to ensure that activities, opportunities and the way we work with children give them confidence. Meeting the needs of all children means observing what we do and also what is provided for the children through the resources that we use. Through the research of this task and also all the in depth reading and studying I have done has helped me gain a more in depth understanding of why it is impotent to plan and meet the educational needs, whilst broadening and enhancing my complete knowledge of the learning of the children in my care and also their development.

Through this play, both indoors and outdoors, is the foundation on which all learning should be based and if planned correctly, can prove invaluable in a child’s development. References ; Bibliography Bruce. T. ; Meggit, C.. , (2007) ‘CACHE Level 3 Award/Certificate/Award/Diploma in Child Care ; Education’ Hodder ; Stoughton. London Bruce. T, (1996) ‘Helping Young Children to Play’. Hodder and Stoughton, London Dahlberg (2000) ‘Everything is a beginning and everything is dangerous’: Some reflections of the Reggio Emilia experience’ cited in Penn.

H. (2nd edition) Early Childhood services Theory, policy and practice. Buckingham: Open University Press Dare. A (1997), ‘Good practice in caring for Young Children with Special Needs’ Stanley Thornes LTD EEC, 2000, ‘integration initiatives: early excellence’ Paragraph 52 Gross . R (2005). ‘Psychology the science of mind and behaviour’ (4th Ed), Green gate Publishing Services, Tonbridge Kent. Hutchin, V. , (1999) ‘Right from the start, Effective planning and assessment in the early Years’ Hodder ; Stoughton. London. Macintyre. C. 2001)’ Enhancing Learning through Play a Developmental Perspective for Early Years Settings’. David Fulton Publishers. London Maslow. A (1968) ‘Towards a psychology of being’ (2nd edition) Nostrand publications O’Hagan, M. ; Smith, M. , (1999) ‘Early Years Child Care Education; Key Issues – (2nd Edition) Balliere Tindall, London. Piaget . J (1951). ‘Play, Dreams and imitation in children,’ London: RKP Piaget. J (1968) ‘Six psychological studies’. London: London University press ltd. Rumbold Report (1990) cited in Welsh Assembly Government ‘ Play/ Active Learning overview 3-7 year olds (2008). age 5 Tassoni. P. ; Bulman. K. (1999) ‘S/NVQ level 3 Early Years Care and Education’. Heinemann. Oxford Tassoni. P. Beith, K. ; Eldridge, H. , (2007). ‘CACHE Level 3 Child Care and Education,’ (4th edition). Heinemann. Oxford Tassoni. P (2008). ’CACHE Childcare and Education Level 3’ (4edition) Heinemann. Oxford Tassoni. P(2008)’Children’s care, learning and Development’ Heinemann Oxford Tassoni. P (2008). ’CACHE Childcare and Education Level 3’ (4edition) Heinemann. Oxford Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). ‘Mind in Society’.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. .Welsh Assembly Government (1), 2008, ‘Learning and Teaching Pedagogy’. Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills. Cardiff Welsh Assembly Government (2), 2002,’Play Policy’ Department for Children, Education, Lifelong Learning and Skills. Cardiff Websites www. dcsf. gov. uk/everychildmatters/strategy www. ict-learningnow. com/maslows-hierarchy-of-needs-theoryabraham-maslow www. howto. co. uk/family/childminding/types_of_observation www. anationalvoice. org