Physical Activity has remained one of the foremost agencies of optimising wellness and well-being among diverse populations. perceived benefits and sensed barriers, are of import determiners explicating why persons start, persist, dropout or go addicted to physical activity. This survey nevertheless determined sensed physical activity benefits and preparedness to originate a physical activity plan among employees in two Federal universities located in the south-eastern portion of Nigeria. The cross-sectional study research design was adopted for the survey. A sample of 600 instruction and non-teaching staff participated in the survey. A three-section composite questionnaire designed for the intent. Results show that staff by and large perceived PA as good to wellness ; nevertheless they did non see PA as good to religious wellness. Moreso, greater per centum of academic staff had attained degree of PA preparedness and engagement than their non-teaching staff opposite numbers. Statisticss found no important difference between male and female staff with respects to comprehend PA benefits, form of preparedness to take part and existent engagement. Conversely, there was important difference between perceived PA benefits of academic and non-academic staff. It was recommended that relevant Educational Institutional governments, Health and Physical Education specializers and professional Associations and other Allied professional Organizations advocator and pursue policies, schemes and PA programmes directed at developing and advancing Physical Activity among Staff in work topographic points.
Physical Activity ( PA ) has remained one of the foremost agencies of optimising wellness and well-being among diverse populations. Strong epidemiological grounds indicates that Physical activity provides a important cost effectual manner of bettering public wellness across the population of all ages and conditions including the challenged- with a broad scope of physical, societal and mental wellness benefits ( Biddle, Gorely and Stensel,2004 ; WHO, 2006 ) . Physical activity is defined as any bodily motion produced by skeletal musculuss that consequences in energy outgo above resting degree ( Caspersen, Powell, Christensen, 1985 ) . Physical activity besides referred to as activity thermogenesis ( AT ) harmonizing to Levine and colleagues ( 2006 ) histories for 25-30 % of entire day-to-day energy outgo ( TDEE ) and is one of the three constituents of TDEE, others being radical metabolic rate ( BMR ) and the thermal consequence of nutrient ( TEF ) .
Physical activity behaviour improves general fittingness and health ( Corbin, Lindsey, Welk and Corbin, 2002 ) ; ameliorate several chronic diseases and lower hazards of certain chronic diseases such as coronary bosom disease and metabolic syndrome ( Franks, Ekelund, Brage, Wong and Wareham, 2004 ) . In specific economic footings, the UNESCO declaration of Punta Del Este, Uruguay in 1999, concluded from surveies undertaken at international degrees that a $ 1 invested in physical activity leads to a economy of $ 3.2 in medical cost ( UNESCO, 1999 ) . Furthermore, physically active lifestyle enhances productiveness by bettering healthier physical and societal environments.
Despite these well-known progresss and benefits of physical activity, Inactivity and sedentary life style have continued to be an increasing job in both high-income states ( HIC ) and low and middle-income states ( LMIC ) , peculiarly in states sing rapid urbanisation and are now implicated as one of the most prima hazard factors for planetary mortality ( World Health Organisation [ WHO ] ,2010, Global Advocacy for Physical Activity [ GAPA ] , 2011 ) . Inactivity has been referred to as a province of no obvious addition in energy outgo above resting degree ( Hagstromer, 2007 ) while, a sedentary life style is defined as prosecuting in no physical activity ( exercisings, athleticss, physically active avocations ) in a two hebdomad period ( WHO 2002 ) . However, Sjostrom, Oja, Hagstromer, Smith and Bauman ( 2006 ) description of sedentary life style as including some activity, but normally non plenty for deriving wellness effects suggests interrelatedness between inaction and sedentary life style.
Physical inaction and sedentary life styles have been identified as the 4th taking hazard factor for planetary mortality doing an estimated 3.2 million deceases globally ( 6 % of deceases globally ) . Furthermore, physical inaction is estimated to be the chief cause for about 21-25 % of chest and colon malignant neoplastic diseases, 27 % of diabetes and about 30 % of ischemic bosom disease load. Corbin, Lindsey, Welk ; and Corbin ( 2002 ) opined that lifestyle alteration, more than any other factor is considered to be the best manner of forestalling unwellness and early decease in our society. At the present age of wellness publicity more than any other clip in history, attempts are being made to advance healthy life styles that lead to fitness and wellness.
Accustomed engagement in one signifier of organized physical activity has been regarded as a positive life style behaviour which has attracted major involvement in wellness publicity and health research ( Biddle, Gorely and Stensel,2004 ; WHO, 2006, GAPA, 2011 ) . Okafor, ( 2006 ) , observed that take parting in physical activity, followed by eating decently and thirdly pull offing emphasis as the top three on the list of 11 wellness life styles must be the focal point of attending.
Knowledge of why individuals participate or do non take part in satisfactory PA or follow inactive and sedentary life style is complex and diverse. Dishman ( 1994 ) concluded that demographic variables, cognition, attitudes and beliefs about physical activity were of import go-betweens to PA engagement while Lovell, El Ansari and Parker ( 2010 ) outlined personal, interpersonal, environmental, and policy as major determiners of PA behavior. Buckworth and Dishman ( 1999 ) , farther identified two cognitive variables of sensed benefits and sensed barriers, as important finding factors of physical activity degrees which perchance explain why persons start, persist, dropout or go addicted to physical activity. They concluded that, engagement in physical activity can be positively influenced by sensed benefits and conversely, be negatively influenced by sensed barriers. As a consequence, Lovell, El Ansari and Parker ( 2010 ) opined that research which advances our cognition of any of these factors has strong potency to better inform PA publicity intercessions and therefore back up positive public wellness effects, both physiological and psychological. Against this background, the perceived PA benefits and form of PA preparedness and engagement are of import go-betweens of PA behavior alteration ( Nahas and Goldfine,2003 ) .
A figure of researches on PA have been conducted in University puting to understand some of the determiners of PA. For illustration, Daskapan, Tuzun and Eker ( 1996 ) found that “ deficiency of clip due to duties related to the household and societal environment ” were most sensed barriers to PA among Turkish University Student. Taha, ( 2008 ) found that the bulk of male and female pupils knew that physical activity is protective against diseases in general ( 92.9 % and 91.8 % severally ) and in the bar of fleshiness ( 69.4 % and 78.5 % ) but had hapless cognition about the function of physical activity in the bar of diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. Significantly more male pupils than female pupils practiced physical activity 3 or more times per hebdomad ( 45.6 % versus 33.7 % ) . Lovell, El Ansari and Parker ( 2010 ) identified reported significantly higher sensed benefits ( Physical public presentation ) from exercising than perceived barriers to exert among non-exercising female pupils in the United Kingdom. Conversely, the greatest perceived barrier to exercising was physical effort, which was rated significantly higher than clip outgo, exercising surroundings, and household disheartenment barriers. In Nigeria, Umeifekwem ( 2011 ) found that most pupils in Federal Universities located in the south-eastern portion of Nigeria reported being cognizant of wellness benefits of PA but were low in engagement in everyday PA. Besides, Males indicated more consciousness of wellness benefits of PA and participated more than their female opposite numbers.
Unfortunately, research attempts are still limited with respects to comprehend PA benefits and engagement among University employees in Nigeria. However, Omolawon and Mohammed, ( 2006 ) studied the sensed determiners associated with low-participation of the universitys academic staff in athleticss and physical activity in University of Ibadan South-west Nigeria. The survey revealed that occupational demands and deficiency of athleticss installations and equipment were the major barriers to low-participation in athleticss and physical activity.
The importance of physical activity to public wellness, the planetary authorizations for the publicity of physical activity and Non-communicable Diseases bar by the World Health Organisation ( WHO,2004 ) and the inadequacy of national informations and guidelines on PA for wellness among low- and in-between income category in workplaces including the University environment in South-eastern portion of Nigeria motivated this survey. This survey hence sought to find sensed benefits of physical activity selected Nigerian universities. Two hypotheses of no important difference with respects to comprehend PA benefits and engagement between gender, and staff class guided the survey.
The cross-sectional study research design was utilized for this survey. A sample of 600 staff, ( age scope 20-65yrs, male and female, learning and non-teaching ) from two Federal Universities located in the south-eastern portion of Nigeria participated in the survey. Purposive sampling technique was used to pull participants for both gender and staff class. A two-section composite questionnaire facilitated the aggregation of self-reported informations. Section A of the questionnaire collected demographic informations, while Section B obtained information on respondents perceptual experience about physical activity benefits through a modified four-point Likert graduated table of strongly agree ( SA ) , Agree ( A ) , Disagree ( D ) , Strongly Disagree ( SD ) with the burdening values of 4,3,2,1 severally. A average value of 2.5 points represented the standard mean. Calculated average values equal or above the standard mean was interpreted as positive perceptual experience, while those below the standard mean was regarded as negative. Research helpers were trained to personally administrate the instrument for informations aggregation. Frequencies, agencies and per centum were employed to depict the collated informations, while trial of important difference ( t-test ) was used to verify the void hypotheses. SPSS, version 13.0 for Windowss was used for all information analyses.
Consequences and treatment
Table 1 presents the classification of gender and staff that participated in the survey. Of the 600 survey participants, 276 ( 46 % ) which composed of 161 ( 26.83 % ) males and 115 ( 25.17 % ) females were in learning class while, 324 ( 54 % ) made up of 175 ( 29.17 % ) males and 149 ( 24.8 % ) females represented the non-teaching class. Overall, 336 ( 56 % ) males 264 ( 44 % ) females participated in the survey.
Table 1. Gender and Staff Category Distribution of the Respondents
Teaching Staff Non-Teaching Staff Total
161 ( 26.83 % ) 175 ( 29.17 % ) 336 ( 56 % )
115 ( 25.17 % ) 149 ( 24.8 % ) 264 ( 44 % )
276 ( 46 % ) 324 ( 54 % ) 600 ( 100 % )
The survey sought to find sensed physical activity benefits of university staff. Table 2 reveals that staff by and large held positive perceptual experience that physical activity reduces several disease conditions, ( average 3.54 ) ; is critical to nutriment of general good wellness ( average 3.47 ) ; and is specifically good to physical wellness ( average 3.77 ) ; societal wellness ( average 3.49 ) ; emotional wellness ( average 3.35 ) . However, they did non keep positive perceptual experience that physical activity benefits religious wellness ( average 2.14 ) . Overall, staff perceived physical activity as being good to wellness ( expansive mean 3.29 ) since the deliberate mean is above the standard mean of 2.50.
Table 2.University Staff Perception About Physical Activity Benefits
S/N Items ( Variables ) Overall Gender Staff Category
Male Female Teaching Nonteaching
1. Physical activity reduces the hazard
to several disease conditions. 3.54 3.48 3.00 3.59 3.58
2. Engagement in the recommended
degrees of physical activity is
critical to prolonging good wellness. 3.47 3.46 3.47 3.56 3.42
3. Engagement in physical activity
is good to physical wellness. 3.77 3.83 3.69 3.75 3.79
4. Engagement in physical activity
is good to societal wellness. 3.49 3.46 3.53 3.40 3.56
5. Engagement in physical activity
is good to emotional wellness. 3.35 3.33 3.38 4.60 3.24
6. Engagement in physical activity
is good to religious wellness. 2.14 2.07 2.21 2.19 2.08
Grand mean 3.29 3.27 3.21 3.52 3.28
Similarly, in specific classifications of male and female staff, and instruction and nonteaching staff, a similar form of responses was demonstrated, Table 2. The consequences indicate that specific classifications of staff perceived physical activity as by and large good ( males, expansive mean: 3.27 ; females, expansive mean: 3.21 ; Teaching staff, expansive mean: 3.52 ; non-teaching staff expansive mean: 3.28 ) but did non see physical activity as good to religious wellness ( males, expansive mean: 2.07 ; females, expansive mean: 2.2 ; Teaching staff, expansive mean: 2.19, non- instruction staff, expansive mean: 2.08 ) .
Table 4. t-test of Significant Difference on Perceived Physical Activity Benefits Across Gender and Staff Category
N R Computed dfs Level of Table Result Decision
position t-value significance t-value
Male 336 Not Ho1
0.521 0.642 598 0.05 1.96 important Supported
Academic 276 Ho2
0.027 2.211 598 0.05 1.96 Significant Supported
t-test statistics yielded statistically important difference in perceived PA benefits between learning and non-teaching staff [ T ( 589 ) 2.211 & gt ; 1.96, P & gt ; .05 ] , Table 4. accordingly, the hypothesis was non supported. Contrariwise, no statistically important differences in sensed physical activity benefits were found between male and female [ T ( 598 ) = 0.642 & lt ; 1.96, P & lt ; .05 ] ( Table 4 ) .
The findings of this survey show that University employees across gender and staff class by and large held positive perceptual experience about physical activity benefits particularly to physical wellness and no important difference in perceived PA benefits were found between genders. However, important difference existed between learning and nonteaching classs of staff as respects the variable of perceived PA benefits. Interestingly, the findings by and large support those of Taha ( 2008 ) and Umeifekwem ( 2011 ) which established that higher proportion of university pupils recognized and were cognizant of the protective belongingss of PA against diseases and attendant wellness benefits. Harmonizing to Buckworth and Dishman ( 1999 ) , two cognitive variables of sensed benefits and sensed barriers are important determiner of physical activity degrees and they perchance explain why persons start, persist, dropout or go addicted to physical activity. These findings are of import because they appear to bespeak that many more people are going confidently cognizant of the importance of PA to physical wellness and thereby inclining towards accustomed PA life style by their look of sensed benefits. Moreso, the findings are indicant that PA lifestyle awareness run attempts on the direct benefits of PA to wellness by diverse national and international wellness bureaus and Organisations, governmental, non-governmental and other giver bureaus is giving positive consequences. However, continued awareness run attempts need to be stepped up with specific attending to gender since the consequence indicates disparity between the two staff classs. Other factors which may non hold been unconnected with the consequence of this survey are the degree of instruction and the university community within which the survey participants operate. The University scene is characteristically an academic environment where the chase for information and cognition basically prevails. It is hence non surprising that most of these employees held positive perceptual experience towards PA benefits since they would hold been sufficiently exposed to the of import values of PA as a consequence of working in the University environment.
The determination that participants across all the dimensions of survey did non perceive PA as good to religious wellness may be clarified by the fact that civilization of the society and the dominant belief system predominating drama of import function in explicating surpassing constructs such as religious wellness. Most of the people populating within the geographical country of this survey hold the position that what enlivens the human spirit is godly instead than physical. Therefore, the determination was non unexpected but instead unanticipated. Yoga, an eastern system of physical activity has been acknowledged as a pattern which advances religious every bit good as physical well-being.
Decision and Recommendations
The major determination of this survey is that University employees in south-eastern Nigeria by and large hold positive perceptual experience sing the wellness benefits accruable from take parting in physical activity across the classs of gender and staff cell. It is hence complete that these findings are of import because they appear to bespeak that many more staff are going confidently cognizant of the importance of PA to physical wellness and thereby proposing the possibility of tending towards accustomed PA life style by their look of sensed benefits. This has deductions for the publicity and constitution of organized physical activity programmes which are unluckily missing in most Universities. It is recommended that University governments proactively initiate concrete action consistently establishing sustainable physical activity programmes that will actuate staff and supply them with the chance to foster advancement non merely from keeping positive perceptual experience sing benefits of PA but to actively prosecute in the existent behavior of accustomed engagement in PA. In the visible radiation of the above recommendation, University governments should synergistically prosecute the services of professional physical pedagogues in their constitution through consultancy agreement to plan and implement physical activity programme templates that will run into the demands of all staff.