Napoleon Populist Autocrat Administrative Structure

Introduction

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in town of Ajaccio in Corsica, an island off the southern seashore of France on 15th August 1769[ 1 ]and by so Corsica was officially under Gallic regulation. History non merely remembers him as a superb military strategian and commanding officer but besides as clever and able solon, consummate decision maker and lawmaker.

Napoleon graduated from Ecole Militaire in Paris in 1785 and was posted in Valence in Southern France after seven old ages of survey in France. He came to prominence after his engagement in the Siege of Toulon by coercing the British naval forces to evacuate the port in 1793 and after supporting the National Convention from the Parisian rabble he wass promoted to Rank of Commander of Army of Interior and subsequently he on successfully led Gallic Armies against Austrian in First Italian Campaign. After successful Italian [ 1796 ] and enrapturing Egyptian [ 1798 ] Campaign ; his popularity, support of military and deficiency of political associations brought him to highlight of political relations and he is appointed as First Consul of France following putsch of 18th-19th Brumaire on 9th-10th December 1799[ 2 ].

No Oklahoman he takes the reins of France, he begins originating reforms in assorted Fieldss covering political relations, civil affairs, legal jobs and economic state of affairs. Alternatively of taking side of any political political orientation or any cabal, he chose a in-between class by enlisting members of all the cabals without sing their political associations but taking history of their ability and endowment. This became evident when he chose members of Council of State, Legion of Honor, Prefects, curates and assorted stations in military hierarchy. This policy became the basis for all assignments in France under his regulation.

By impacting Peace of Amiens [ 1802 ] he brought brief period of peace when France was non at war with any province. It was during this clip he brought about most of his reforms, alterations, creative activities, expansion and growing of different establishments of France. He brought an terminal to political turbulence of France by hushing the different cabals and subsequently on mixing them into his disposal. The political system envisaged made him an almighty and brought about centralisation of political machinery. He had embarked on the civil reforms that were to do him rightly celebrated: the mollification of La Vendee, a successful financial reform, a better administrative model, passing of educational system, successfully decision of Concordat with Pope and codification of Torahs of France[ 3 ].

War once more broke out in 1803, foremost with Britain and subsequently other Continental powers fall ining in the raid. Britain, Austria and Russia organizing the Third Coalition threatened France, whereas Napoleon taking a alliance of Cardinal German States inflicted oppressing lickings on Austria foremost at Ulm [ 20th October 1805 ][ 4 ]followed by the coronating triumph over Austro-Russian combine at Austerlitz [ 2nd December 1805 ][ 5 ]. This was followed by subsequent peace with Austrians at Pressburg and Russia at Tilsit. Prussia mentioning the ground of misdemeanor of neutrality of Ansbach by processing Gallic ground forcess declared war on France later but was rapidly and wholly crushed in Battles of Jena and Auerstadt [ 1806 ] . On 16th July 1806[ 6 ], Confederation of Rhine was established in topographic point of Holy Roman Empire.

In 1802, national ballot was taken for the Life Consulate of Napoleon, the consequence being 3,568,000 in favor to 8,374 against[ 7 ]. Two old ages subsequently Napoleon completed his journey to autarchy: on 3rd May 1804[ 8 ]Tribunate expressed the want that ‘Bonaparte be proclaimed familial Emperor of the Gallic ‘ . The Senate and the Legislative organic structure drew up a measure which so became an organic senates consultum. It was so submitted to the people for confirmation: 3,572,000 voted ‘yes ‘ to 2,569 ‘nos ‘[ 9 ]. Napoleon ascended the throne of France with the rubric of “ Napoleon I, Emperor of the Gallic ”[ 10 ]. On 2nd December 1804[ 11 ], he was crowned in Notre Dame Cathedral in presence of Pope Pius VII. On 17th March 1805[ 12 ], he was crowned “ King of Italy ” .

Subsequently, in France, a rigorous system of censoring was imposed and espionage system was strengthened. Whereas other parts of Empire, viz. Italy, Central Germany and Holland were subjected to heavy revenue enhancements and the Gallic reforms were imposed in these provinces which easy culminated in rise of patriotism and abhorrence of foreign regulation.

Freedom of Religion was ushered during this period, foremost by subscribing of Concordat with Pope [ 1801 ] which healed the breach with the Catholic Church, so by allowing equal position to Protestants every bit good as the Jews. Legal System was overhauled, by codifying the Torahs of France which dealt with affairs runing from civil to condemnable Torahs every bit good as commercial jurisprudence. This was a adept blend of different Torahs present in France before get downing of Gallic Revolution and the thoughts of Revolution, where under the leading of Napoleon[ 13 ], extreme importance was given to simpleness, clarity and pragmatism. Four of the finest legal experts of France of the day of the month stand foring Northern Customary Torahs along with Southern Roman influenced Torahs worked to bring forth a codification of Torahs which has stood the trial of clip and is still is a jurisprudence of France.

The terminal of war against Britain nowhere in sight, Napoleon Bonaparte declared Continental Blockade against Britain which would ensue in complete terminal of trade with Europe. The Blockade will accomplish its extremum by 1811, when full Europe accepted the Continental Blockade. To implement Continental Blockade, he conquered Naples, Portugal and subsequently Spain. Portugal and Spain involved France in long drawn out drawn-out Peninsular War which would go on till Restoration of Bourbon Monarchy in 1815.

When France was involved in Peninsular War, Austria organizing an confederation with Britain declared war on France with hope of interrupting hegemony of France in Europe. Napoleon smashed the Austrians and within a month occupied Vienna. It will non be until 1812 invasion of Russia that France domination will be disputed and at eventually Napoleon will be defeated in Battle of Waterloo and subsequently exiled to St. Helena.

It was during this period, when Napoleon brought in administrative, civil and legal reforms most of which still survive in France as life testimony to the impressiveness of work done during this period for France. Napoleon followed, “ Everything for the Gallic Peoples ”[ 14 ]as his slogan, and this is reflected in his superb conquerings and practical, down to Earth but still long enduring reforms which he brought in France and later in the conquered districts.

In long tally, most of these reforms will organize the bedrock of Gallic political, legal and administrative construction which at that important minute of Gallic history provided France with stable, efficient and progressive authorities. Gallic people hailed all of these reforms, and most of them are still portion and package of Gallic disposal in modified signifiers.

LIBERAL AUTHORITARIAN ADMINISTRATION: Political COMPROMISE, FLEXIBILITY AND NATIONAL STABILITY

The centralized administrative system which has prevailed in France was the handicraft of Napoleon[ 15 ]. Napoleon knew and really good understood the exhaustion and aversion of people after a helter-skelter Revolution and an oppressive ancien government. Peoples tired and disgusted with bloodshed, changeless alteration of authoritiess, putschs, political instability, appendages and changeless danger of counter-revolution by monarchist were hankering for a stronger, efficient and stable authorities which would forestall decay of the system and continue the ideals of revolution. The Gallic during the Revolution had attacked the absolutism of male monarchs, the political inequality of many fundamental laws merely partially free ; the pride of the aristocracy ; the domination, intolerance, and wealth of the priesthood, and the maltreatments of the feudal system, all of which were still rampant in most of Europe[ 16 ]. Napoleon understood the doctrine behind these ideals and therefore went on to recognize the ends and continue the ideals of Revolution but merely after guaranting political stableness of France and safeguarding it from counter-revolution and internal discord.

After a successfully taking over the disposal of the France, he understood the state of affairs of people and different cabals. And lifting above the cabals and doing virtue as the spirit and substance of his regulation he decided to show an epoch of political stableness, administrative efficiency and economic betterment.

“ We have done with the love affair of the Revolution: we must now get down its history. We must hold eyes merely for what is existent and operable in the application of rules, and non for the bad and conjectural. ” – Bonaparte, at Conseil d’etat[ 17 ]

Above statement gives clear image of frame of head of Napoleon and the people presiding with him. They understanding the sentiments of the people every bit good as demand of hr and under the counsel of Napoleon himself went on to reorganise the authorities and disposal.

Political System:

The centralised authorities was divided into Consulate, Senate, Corps Legislatif and Tribunate. Title IV of the Constitution of Year VII[ 18 ]gave plentifulness of powers to Napoleon who was to be First Consul. Art 41[ 19 ]of Constitution gave him the power to promulgates Torahs, appoint and dismiss at will the members of the Council of State, the curates, the embassadors and other foreign agents of high rank, the officers of the ground forces and naval forces, the members of the local disposals, and the commissioners of the authorities before the courts. Art. 52[ 20 ]gave Napoleon the power to direct the council of province which was charged with pulling up undertakings of jurisprudence and ordinances of public disposal and cover with troubles which arise in administrative affairs.

Executive power was vested in three consuls, but, as first consul, it was efficaciously in Napoleon ‘s custodies, the other two moving as advisors. Yet they had to work to a legislative assembly. It rested on a really complex signifier of indirect election. Each commune voted a list of individuals, totaling one-tenth of its citizens, deemed worthy to carry on public concern. This list so proceeded to elect one-tenth of its figure and these made up the departmental list. This in its bend elected a ten percent of its members – this was the national list. The pick of members was vested in a new organic structure, the Senate. From this list foremost the Consulate appointed 24 members and these co-opted others to organize a organic structure of 60. These 60 so drew up a list of 100 members for the Tribunate and 300 for the Legislature. The Tribunate could discourse or suggest statute law but non vote on it whereas the Legislature could vote but non discourse it, and neither Chamber had a legislative enterprise. That came from the executive, i.e. , from Napoleon working with his Council of State. The power delivered to the executive was hence huge, but it should non be supposed that the members of these organic structures were ciphers.[ 21 ]

A senatus consultum of August 1st forthwith proclaimed Napoleon Bonaparte Consul for Life[ 22 ], which was so put to the people in a plebiscite. The official figures were 3,011,007 in favor and merely 1,562 against[ 23 ]. Napoleon now gained few and extra powers, he had the power to put up the other two consuls, could name his replacement. The three legislative organic structures lost practically all their powers, those of the Corps Legislatif traveling to the Senate, those of the Council of State to an official Cabal formed out of it ; while the Tribunate was forced to debate in secret in five subdivisions, where, as Bonaparte observed, they might rant as they liked.[ 24 ]

The triumph of action over talk, of the executive over the legislative assembly, of the one supremely able adult male over the discordant and incapacitated many, was now complete.[ 25 ]With the constitution of Empire, Napoleon became all powerful with other organic structures now losing all the powers. But as a prudent and cautious solon, he referred all his Acts of the Apostless to people as plebiscite. In his ain words, ‘The entreaty to the people has the dual advantage of legalising the protraction of my power and of sublimating the beginning. In any other manner it must ever hold appeared ambiguous ‘ .[ 26 ]It was so submitted to the people for confirmation: 3,572,000 voted ‘yes ‘ to 2,569 ‘nos ‘ . The Corps Legislatif disappeared and the Tribunate is non heard of after 1808. The Emperor was exclusive swayer.[ 27 ]The Senate was brought steadfastly under the Emperor ‘s control and thereby ceased to be as an independent organic structure.[ 28 ]The Senate had the visual aspect but non the world of great power.[ 29 ]

By now France came under highly centralised regulation, which ensured boulder clay 1815 France safety from civil discord, rebellion and any signifier of discord from any of the cabals present in France at that clip. Besides, Napoleon took merely those into political stations who possessed endowment and merited the station irrespective of their political associations. This and other steps taken by him to convey Democrats, Republicans, Jacobins and subsequently Monarchists succeeded to convey them into his crease. Besides creative activity of Legion of Honor created a category of stalwarts who stood by him till the terminal. Centralization of Power and making a category of stalwarts brought political stableness to France at bend of century when political political orientations clashed throughout Europe.

Administrative System:

Entire Republic was divided into sections and arrondissements with each section holding a Prefect, Council of Prefecture and Department General Council with Prefect basking absolute powers and privileges in the section while carry oning twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours personal businesss[ 30 ]. Napoleon while reorganising disposal wholly eliminated elected system and naming[ 31 ]Prefects to carry on the personal businesss of the Department, while sub-prefects were placed over the new arrondissements and city managers over the communes. The city managers were straight appointed by the First Consul in communes with population of over 5,000 whereas Prefects appointed the city managers for staying communes.

The administrative machinery aided in keeping control over different countries of the Empire, along with supplying disposal which was missing for a long period of clip in France. Indeed, so small was there of effectual self-government that France seems to hold sighed with alleviation when order was imposed by Bonaparte in the individual of a Prefect.[ 32 ]The Prefect was chiefly the political agent of the Government.[ 33 ]Vigorous censoring which was imposed in whole of France along with a complex but effectual web of undercover agents under the charge of Fouche prevented political oppositions a land to protest whereby keeping political stableness. The state was honeycombed with undercover agents and betrayers and watched over by a vigilant and efficient constabulary.[ 34 ]

Napoleon working with Cambaceres brought about the autocratic construction in topographic point and subsequently in the yearss of Empire it was Cambaceres who worked meticulously while covering with administrative affairs. Bonaparte took up the undertakings of regular revenue enhancement payments, jurisprudence and order, instruction, military supply, ordinance of grain trade, censoring and host of public undertakings which included undertakings of assorted types from beautification of Paris with which Napoleon attached premier importance to building of roads to link all the metropoliss of France with Paris and subsequently their expansion and care.

All of this was done and achieved and efficiency was insured by keeping a web of undercover agents, passage of rigorous penal codification [ 1810 ] and Napoleon ever giving precedency to deserve over all other considerations while doing assignments.

The administrative construction which though has undergone many alterations but has still survived in its kernel boulder clay day of the month in France.

AUTHORITARIANISM IN DAILY LIFE:

Education AND RELIGION

Napoleon embarked on the civil reforms that were to do him rightly famous, which all had autocratic construction in topographic point so as to let Napoleon to set them to his wants. This is really good observed in relation to his Education Policy and Religious Policy. Law of II Floreal[ 35 ]which dealt with Education Policy to followed in France was passed on 1st May 1802, whereas Concordat and subsequent organic statute laws which dealt with spiritual inquiry were made in first old ages of his regulation, which though provided general people with instruction and spiritual freedom hitherto unknown but gave Napoleon a supreme place over them and pull strings them to his addition. His premier purpose while ordaining Law of II Floreal was to convey instruction to common public and utilize it as a propaganda to better his image and keep control over France. Breach with faith and ulterior persecution of faith during Revolutionary old ages had brought much unease throughout France, particularly rural public who were still devout, therefore he decided non merely to let faith and digest different religions in France but besides to mend the breach with Papacy. This was achieved through Concordat and organic statute laws passed by him over class of his reign.

EDUCATION IN FRANCE:

“ I want a instruction organic structure, because such a organic structure ne’er dies, but transmits its organisation and spirit. I want a organic structure whose instruction is far above the crazes of the minute, goes directly on even when the authorities is asleep, and whose disposal and statutes become so national that one can ne’er lightly decide to tamper with them… . ” – Bonaparte[ 36 ]

Educational System in France went under complete alteration. Schools run by Church which were premier beginning of instruction during ancien government and which were closed down during Revolution were non substituted by an equal construction which led to abysmal state of affairs of instruction in France.

Napoleon wanting to convey an terminal to the abysmal state of affairs and utilizing it as a tool to accomplish his terminal of doing the future coevalss of France loyal to the province and him brought about an inspection and repair. The new educational policy aimed at making a new loyal group of people and to manner them as “ able breadwinners, obedient citizens and enthusiastic soldiers ”[ 37 ].

Elementary schools were left to the control and supervising of the communes and of the sub-prefects[ 38 ]. The jurisprudence of II Floreal, nevertheless, aimed at bettering the secondary instruction[ 39 ], which the Convention had attempted to give in its ecoles centrales. These were now reconstituted either as ecoles secondaires or as secondary schools. The former were local or even private establishments intended for the most promising students of the commune or group of communes ; while the lycees, far fewer in figure, were controlled straight by the Government. In both of these schools great prominence was given to the exact and applied scientific disciplines.

The preparation was of an about military type, the students being on a regular basis drilled, while the lessons began and ended with the axial rotation of membranophones. The Numberss of the secondary schools and of their students quickly increased ; but the advancement of the secondary and primary schools, which could tout no such attractive forces, was really slow. In 1806 merely 25,000 kids were go toing the public primary schools.[ 40 ]

But two old ages subsequently simple and advanced direction received a noteworthy drift from the constitution of the University of France[ 41 ]. The new University of France was laudably suited to his intent. It was non a local university: it was the sum sum of all the public [ pg.297 ] learning organic structures of the Gallic Empire, arranged and drilled in one huge instructional array. Elementary schools, secondary schools, secondary schools, every bit good as the more advanced colleges, all were absorbed in and controlled by this great instruction corporation, which was to instill the principles of the Catholic faith, fidelity to the Emperor and to his Government[ 42 ], as warrants for the public assistance of the people and the integrity of France. For educational intents, France was now divided into 17 Academies[ 43 ], which formed the local Centres of the new establishment. Therefore, from Paris and 16 provincial Academies, direction was purely organized and controlled ; and within a short clip of its establishment ( March, 1808 ) , direction of all sorts, including that of the simple schools, showed some progress.

In kingdom of exact and applied scientific disciplines, glorious finds were made and it prospered. But literature and poesy took a back place chiefly because of deficiency of support and secondly because of strict censoring.

In the terminal it served the intent of Emperor, created a category of stalwarts and exact and applied scientific discipline made a long paces and France was to stay the hub of scientific surveies for another half a century.

CONTROL OVER RELIGION:

Bonaparte in order to diminish the edginess among the population took stairss to accommodate Papacy, Protestants and even Jews subsequently. He intended to utilize faith to derive support of the people every bit good as wield and attach them to his regulation.

On 15th July 1801, he signed Concordat with Pope in which Gallic Government recognized that the Catholic apostolic and Roman faith was the faith of the great bulk of the Gallic people. It was to be freely and publically practiced in France, capable to the constabulary ordinances that the Government judged necessary for the public repose. A new division of archbishoprics and dioceses was now made, which gave in all 60 sees to France. Napoleon enjoyed the right of nomination to them, whereupon the Pope bestowed the canonical coronation. The archbishops and bishops were all to take an curse of fidelity to the fundamental law. The bishops nominated the lower churchmans provided that they were acceptable to the Government: all likewise bound themselves to watch over governmental involvements. The stableness of France was farther assured by a clause allowing complete and lasting security to the holders of the confiscated Church lands – a healing and good via media which restored peace to every small town and soothed the scruples of many a troubled scruples. On its side, the State undertook to supply suited stipends to the clergy.[ 44 ]

Napoleon made several Torahs under the supplication of passing for the constabulary of public worship. The organic articles forbade the application of Papal bulls, or of the edict of “ foreign ” synods, to France, they farther forbade the Gallic bishops to piece in council or synod without the permission of the Government ; and this was besides required for a bishop to go forth his bishopric, even if he were summoned to Rome.

The ordinance of the Protestant cult in France was a far less backbreaking undertaking, Napoleon recognized two head Protestant organic structures in France, Calvinists and Lutherans, leting them to take their ain curates and to modulate their personal businesss in consistories. The curates were to be salaried by the State, but in return the Government non merely reserved its blessing of every assignment, but required the Protestant organic structures to hold no dealingss whatever with any foreign Power or authorization.[ 45 ]

In the old ages 1806-08 the place of Jews was similarly defined, at least for all those who recognized France as their state, performed all civic responsibilities, and recognized all the Torahs of the State. In consideration of their paying full revenue enhancements and executing military service, they received official protection and their rabbis governmental support.[ 46 ]

Napoleon succeeded to convey the different spiritual establishments under authorities control and even commanding and modulating their personal businesss, so as to forestall them from lifting up against the authorities and at the same clip doing people content.

Reform OF JUDICIAL SYSTEM

“ I will travel down to history with the Code in my manus. ” – Bonaparte[ 47 ]

Law for Reorganization of Judicial System[ 48 ]was passed on 18th March 1800 doing judiciary a simple hierarchy of tribunals. At lowermost degree, i.e. , for every commune there was a Tribunal of First Instance which was presided over by Justice of Peace which dealt with civil every bit good as correctional constabulary affairs.[ 49 ]Every section had a Criminal Tribunal which had legal power over all the condemnable and correctional constabulary affairs in the section.[ 50 ]Twenty-nine Courts of entreaty were established throughout France to hear civil and commercial affair from Tribunal of First Instance.[ 51 ]Tribunal of Cassation sat in Paris which was the concluding tribunal where entreaty could be made from Criminal Tribunal or Tribunal of Appeal which was composed of 48 Judgess.[ 52 ]

A individual codification for France was the dream of King Louis XI in the 15th century, of Dumoulin ( 1500-66 ) and Brisson in the sixteenth, of Colbert and Lamoignin in the seventeenth, and of D’Aguesseau in the eighteenth. The four last named made significant parts toward such a undertaking – Brisson, by his digest of the regulations in force under Henry III, Colbert and Lamoignon, through a more famed regulations bearing the name of Louis XIV, and D’Aguesseau, whose regulations on volitions, gifts, and entails appeared between 1731 and 1747, and “ were done codifications ” .[ 53 ]Before the eruption of Revolution, Voltaire had telegraphically commented on jurisprudence and order state of affairs of France, saying “ Man did non frequently alter his Equus caballus, every bit many as he changed jurisprudence while going through France ” , which right gave the image of jurisprudence and order state of affairs before Revolution. The parlements, being maintainers of local customary Torahs proved another obstruction towards codification of jurisprudence. During the Revolution, revolutionists made many efforts to codify the Torahs to convey uniformity throughout France, but failed and when Napoleon took power, banditry was on rise and jurisprudence and order state of affairs had deteriorated. Napoleon with an purpose to convey stableness gave premier importance to reorganising the judicial system and codifying the Torahs. The drafters of codification surely considered that the natural development of any legal system leads it to a point of logical consistence at which it may be codified. A Code, for them, is non mere aggregation of regulations, but a aggregation of regulations with such interior consistence that logical logical thinking can be a portion of legal logical thinking.[ 54 ]

Portalis, one of the drafters, clearly elaborated on the nature of their project, “ Laws are non pure Acts of the Apostless of will ; they are Acts of the Apostless of wisdom, of justness and of ground. One ought to ne’er bury that Torahs are made for work forces, non work forces for Torahs ; that they must be adapted to their character, to the wonts, to the state of affairs of the people for whom they are draftedaˆ¦ ”[ 55 ]

With power entrusted to him to convey reforms in judicial system, Napoleon instantly setup a commission to outline a codification to unite jurisprudence throughout France, which included experient attorneies and legal experts of France, viz. , Tronchet, Portalis, Bigot de Premeneu and Malleville. On 21st March, 1804, Code Civil was passed, the Code of Civil Procedure followed in 1806, Code of Commerce in 1807, the Code of Criminal Procedure ( Instruction Criminelle ) in 1808 and eventually the Code Penal in 1810.[ 56 ]

The Code of Commerce was barely more revised and edited edition of the ordannances of 1673 and 1681 ; while the Code of Civil Procedure borrowed its main elements from the ordannance of 1667. In the instance of the Code of Criminal Procedure a clearly new going was made ; the process introduced by the Revolution into tribunals where judgement was given remained public and unwritten, with full autonomy of defense mechanism ; the preliminary process, nevertheless, before the analyzing tribunal ( juge d’instruction or chambre diethylstilbestrols mises en accusal ) was borrowed from the ordannance of 1670 ; it was the process of the old jurisprudence, without its inhuman treatment, but secret and written, and by and large non in the presence of both parties. The Code Penal maintained the rules of the Revolution, but increased the punishments. It substituted for the system of fixed punishments, in instances of impermanent penalty, a maximal and a lower limit, between the bounds of which justice could measure the sum.[ 57 ]

The household was thereafter modelled on the thought dominant [ pg.291 ] in the State, that authorization and responsible action pertained to a individual person. The male parent controlled the behavior of his kids: his consent was necessary for the matrimony of boies up to their 25th twelvemonth, for that of girls up to their 21st twelvemonth ; and other ordinances were framed in the same spirit.[ 58 ]Napoleon raised the age at which matrimony could be lawfully contracted to that of 18 for work forces, and 15 for adult females, and he prescribed a expression of obeisance to be repeated by the bride to her hubby ; while the latter was bound to protect and back up the married woman.

On Contract, Roman jurisprudence was premier beginning as presented and explained by 17th century attorney Domat and his 18th century opposite number opposite number, Pothier.[ 59 ]

Among other things, Code ‘s concision, simplicity and lucidity were factors which insured the Code ‘s success and endurance. And even after being amended, it still is the jurisprudence of France and has been adopted many a states. The progressive extension of Code Napoleon ‘s influence throughout the universe will look from the following table demoing the day of the month of announcement of the codifications of legion states which have made the Gallic code their theoretical account:

State

Year

Belgique

1804

Louisiana

1808

Oesterreichs

1811

Hispaniola

1825

Greece

1827

Netherlands

1838

Bolivia

1843

Peru

Chili

Italy

Lower Canada ( Quebec )

Portuguese republic

Uruguay

Argentina

Mexico

Nicaragua

Guatemala

Honduras

Spain

Salvador

Venezuela

1852

1855

1865

1866

1867

1868

1869

1870

1871

1877

1880

1889

1889

1896

Table 1[ 60 ]

As general regulations apply to concrete fortunes which resulted in significant decrease of judicial proceeding. Many commissariats of the Code settled jobs that had been discussed during old ages or centuries and did it so clearly that the affair ceased wholly to be a job. Its endurance boulder clay present twenty-four hours and its acceptance by assorted foreign states stands a testament to its success.

Decision

POPULIST AUTOCRACY

Prof. S E Finer in his book History of Government called authorities of France under Napoleon as one being a “ Populist Autocracy ” .[ 61 ]The state of affairs demanded stableness for France every bit good as saving of ideals of Revolution. Napoleon who really good calculated the state of affairs kept the progresss made during the Revolution and provided stableness to France but at the award of ‘Liberty ‘ .

It was a necessary for France to hold a strong leading usher it during such a disruptive status when they are was danger of antagonistic revolution from without and possibility of civil discord from within. Centralized, autocratic system assured political stableness and Napoleon mastermind made it one of the most efficient system. But the life of system was limited to life of Napoleon himself and was bound to weaken with his absence.

Napoleon manipulated the thoughts of all the persons present to make a merger which was rational every bit good as acceptable to all, thereby winning more protagonists for himself from all the cantonments. This changeless desire to increase his support and look into the degrees of popularity he referred to public confirmation all the major Acts of the Apostless which could hold affect him adversely. This act of his legitimized his power and made him ever remain in touch with people at the same clip taking people with him wheresoever he desired. How was his regulation maintained? Not by the show of military force, to be certain – nor even by its presence. It was partially based on the echt popularity.

Hence, his regulation can be termed as a regulation of Populist Autocrat where he worked for the benefit of people, at the same clip gave due consideration to their wants at the same clip utilizing all agencies to progress his ain aspiration.