Low Cost Eye Care Service Health And Social Care Essay

The purpose of the thesis undertaking is to analyze the oculus attention direction systems and installations and to measure the quality and low cost construction of Aravind infirmaries.


The research seeks to

Determine the map between the quality of services and low cost direction of infirmaries.

This aim will concentrate on the literature related to low cost patient attention in Hospitals. There is a functional relationship between the monetary value paid by the patient and the degrees of service they receive. This aim will reexamine the literature for the low cost services provided by the infirmary for the patients.

Understand the impact of cost control on the efficiency degrees, in oculus attention intervention and surgeries performed to different categories of patients.

Aravind infirmary has managed to maintain its cost construction low and this efficiency degrees is being passed on to the poorer patients with differential charges. The degrees of services and the installations received by different patients besides differ. The aim is to analyze the impact of the efficiency additions through better direction of resources and installations and care of differential pricing construction in the infirmary.

Critically analyse the factors that contribute to the low cost direction construction of the infirmary

The low cost construction of the infirmary is due to many outstanding direction patterns such as high volume of surgeries, operational efficiencies, differential pricing etc. The thesis aims to critically analyze the assorted factors which contribute to each facet of the cost control.

Recommend the outstanding direction patterns followed in Aravind Hospitals which can be replicated in other infirmaries.

There are many infirmaries which follow low cost attack to patient attention but many of them differ in their direction patterns. The cardinal direction patterns followed in the Aravind oculus attention infirmary could be replicated in other systems of wellness attention. The thesis aims to urge such patterns which can be replicated in many infirmaries.


Quality medical attention at low-cost monetary values has seen major up liftment in the development states due to the bettering proficient and human resource installations. There are new foundations and administrations coming up with advanced patterns which deliver seasonably and effectual medical installations to the hapless and marginalised population in India. There are assorted authorities enterprises and it is so about within the horizon of the cardinal and province authoritiess to present medical attention installations to the immense population of the state who can non afford the cost of private medical infirmaries. The cost of medical attention has increased over the old ages even though new technological developments, good human resources in footings of physicians and nursing practicians and better direction patterns have evolved. The thought of the technological inventions had ever been in new methods and processs such as new surgical equipments, better and expensive medical instruments etc and non aimed at cut downing the cost of medical installations. While on the other manus with the development of bigger infirmaries has ever been instrumental in increasing the cost as their operational and overhead costs are immense. But along this all developments there were administrations and establishments which dedicate their attempts to supply low cost medical installations to the hapless. They concentrate on one country of medical attention and implement better direction patterns in their infirmaries to cut down the cost of medical attention for their patients.

Organisational Back land

Aravind oculus infirmaries were initiated by the airy altruist Dr. G Venkataswamy with a mission to extinguish sightlessness. Since its low beginnings as a rented edifice in Madurai in Tamil Nadu with 11 beds in 1976 it has grown to five infirmaries in the province of Tamil Nadu handling 2.5 million patients and executing 300,000 surgeries in a twelvemonth ( Aravind Hospital, 2010 ) . The Aravind infirmaries has evolved a extremely successful concern theoretical account through which quality remedy, preventative and rehabilitative oculus attention installations such as high Numberss of cataract surgeries are performed at monetary values that everyone can afford. One of the nucleus rules of the Aravind System is that the infirmary must supply services to the rich and hapless alike, yet be financially self-supporting. This rule is delivered within a sustainable fiscal construction based on dramatic decreases in cost construction that are passed on as nest eggs to its clients. Apart from the infirmaries the Aravind Trust industries ophthalmic merchandises, manages a research centre and a resource and preparation centre with a position to make low cost oculus attention plans for the underdeveloped universe ( Aravind Hospital, 2010 ) .

Aravind has five infirmaries, three managed oculus infirmaries, a fabrication centre for ophthalmic merchandises, an international research foundation and a resource and preparation centre ( Aravind Hospital, 2010 ) . The thesis is taking to analyze the Aravind infirmary in Coimbatore which opened in 1997. Coimbatore is a strategic topographic point situated near to the boundary line of two provinces of Kerala and Karnataka and is able to give its service to twenty five million patients. It installations accommodates 176 paying patients and 580 free patients. In the recent old ages the Coimbatore unit has grown and is managing 574,501 outpatient visits and performed 72,775 surgeries from April 2008- March 2009.

With a position to cut downing the cost of oculus attention intervention at the infirmaries the infirmary has segmented the patients in to two sections ; free and paid patients. The direction of cleavage and the techniques applied has so been alone and has operated with much success. The installations and the physicians is shared among both the classs but the infirmary remain self sufficient with their operations conducted from internally generated financess. In this instance a cross subsidy policy is undertaken by Aravind Eye infirmary. The patients who are treated free are expected to stay at the infirmary for a longer period of clip with residence hall installations allocated to them while the paid patients get single suites and pass less clip at the infirmary. Hence with the cross subsidisation of the patients and the other direction patterns Aravind infirmaries is able to present oculus attention installations to hapless patients at really low-cost rates.

Aravind infirmaries with advanced patterns in the methods of surgical patterns, the sourcing of medical equipments and ophthalmic merchandises for patients from its ain research labs, fabrication centres and research installations

Literature reappraisal

India has a population of more than a billion, bulk in the rural countries and turning. India is besides turning economically with the recent old ages demoing GDP growing of more than 5 % . Harmonizing to Mahal, Debroy and Bhandari, ( 2010 ) , wellness is a major factor act uponing the overall economic results. Many research workers in the recent yesteryear suggest that investing in wellness attention systems is a long footings determination necessity to the overall development of the state. Improvements in wellness and life anticipation rates have shown to hold increased the productiveness of the state as seen from the instances of developed states.

Harmonizing to Schieber ( ) the spread between the rich and the hapless states is immense when sing the distribution of planetary disease load. Developing states account for 93 per centum of the planetary disease load. The aging population and the lifting incidence of non catching diseases is driving up the cost of patient attention in every portion of the universe. It is estimated that industrial states have three times as many doctors per capita and six times as many inpatient beds per capita as in developing states. As per Schieber ( ) the developing states need to put to a great extent in the wellness sector with enlargement of installations and personal along with bettering quality.

As per Shaarawy et. Al. ( ) ,

Harmonizing to Schieber ( 1997 ) wellness insurance is the best method to for funding wellness services since by pooling the hazards overall hazards are reduced.

Harmonizing to Raman and Bjorkman ( ) , the estimated private wellness attention market in India by 2010 will be about 1560 billion Sri lanka rupees with a demand of extra 750,000 infirmary inmate beds, 520,000 physicians.

As per Scheiber ( 1997 ) when the patients are made to pay from their income at the point of having the intervention will raise the already high barrier for low income households to entree the medical attention.

As per Raman and Bjorkman many theoretical accounts for heightening the wellness attention systems are explored in the developing states such as public private partnership, execution of publically funded insurance strategies, community based wellness attention systems etc.

Poor people are the most vulnerable to wellness direction issues as most of the low income households are dependent on day-to-day rewards for their endurance. In many instances in urban and rural families there might be merely one gaining member and any sick wellness caused to the earning member will set to put on the line the full house clasp. In the instance that the disease is non to the earning member it is taken with less earnestness and left unattended boulder clay it is excessively late. In instance of the gaining members the loss of one yearss work affect the whole household beat or even lasting loss of employment as many are employed in unorganised sectors for day-to-day rewards.

As per Shaarawy et. Al. ( ) telemedicine has the ability to convey oculus attention testing to the people instead than holding patients and frees them to acquire adept sentiments without being capable to long distant travel and allows them potentially freer entree to better quality oculus attention.

Harmonizing to Gothwal ( ) , there are about 40 five million blind and 135 million visually impaired out of which 90 % are populating in the underdeveloped universe. Of these bulk are from countries where there is no entree to even primary wellness services. The low visions patients are marginalised as many of them are from the poorest families were the disease itself is considered as untreatable and accordingly ne’er taken to a physician or a infirmary. In the rural countries there are many socio economical barriers to taking up the simpler cataract surgeries as good. Harmonizing to Gothwal ( ) , the un even distribution of eye doctors in the underdeveloped universe and particularly in India where it is 1 physician for every 100,000 population is doing the dearth in ophthalmic attention. Not merely the deficiency of eye doctors, infirmaries and even surgical processs but the high cost of extremely proficient low vision devices such as lenses is besides a mjor job in the consumption of oculus attention services by the hapless.

Lack of consciousness is one of the causes for the low consumption of oculus attention services by the hapless. Most of the patients with vision jobs develop these over a period of clip and is non diagnosed decently in the beginning stages itself. This is particularly the instance from hapless income families where precedences are given for more complicated or life baleful diseases.

Harmonizing to Gothwal ( ) , there are societal attitudes and behaviors typical from the Indian position are a lending cause to the deficiency of up return of low vision intervention in India and such attitudes include seting duty on destiny, misconception and traditional belief of airy upsets related to aging etc.

With the Aravind oculus attention system the surgeries performed were holding a better rate of success than the similar surgeries conducted with similar installations ( Shaarawy, 2009 ) .

Indian wellness sector is unable to supply just entree of quality wellness attention services for all due to hapless planning, low resource allotment, losing establishments and unequal execution ( Mahal, Debroy and Bhandari, 2010 ) .

As per Jain ( ) , to maintain the operational costs down requires immense volumes and efficient systems which is what Aravind Hospitals has in footings of carry oning 50 operations a twenty-four hours. Advanced direction techniques in operational facets are the method adopted by Aravind Hospitals. One such invention is in its fee construction in which even though it provides free intervention to the patients the infirmary is able to earn the needed grosss by subsidising the free patients through paid patients. The advanced characteristic is the separating characteristic between free and the paid service. In India and in instance of all the states the common people will be given to travel to cheapest available beginning for merchandises and services. The method in which Aravind is able to pull patients, and receive payment from them, even with the offer for free intervention handiness is alone. This construct is based on the chance cost of the patients and which is successfully practiced. It is estimated that the low income individuals have a low chance cost in footings of clip compared to a high income individual. Even though this seems to offer a petroleum differentiation in footings of the dimensions in societal positions this appears to be true in many instances. The petients coming to the infirmaries can choose for free or paid intervention. The free patients will necessitate to pass more clip at the infirmary and is offered dormitory type adjustment during the procedure. The paid patients will acquire [ referential intervention and besides better installations in footings of suites. But it should be born in head that the infirmary keeps the existent intervention quality same to both the class of the patients which may be surgeries performed or other types of intervention. Hence there is no existent differentiation between the existent needed services but the associated benefits and services determine the difference in the overall service and on this footing the cleavage of the patients are made.

With the cleavage of the clients into two over all classs there emerges certain statistics in footings of Numberss which are that about one tierces of the patients pay in full for the intervention and the attention. Out of the remainder two tierces, one 3rd pays about 65 % of the entire cost towards the service, and the balance receive free service ( Gupta, Gollakota and Srinivasan, 2007 ) .