International Health Care Systems Health And Social Care Essay

This research paper trades with comparing between wellness attention systems of United States and India. I chose these two states because of my acquaintance with wellness attention system in India and involvement in the U.S wellness attention system. While U.S. and India have few things in common, there are a batch of differences. The wellness attention systems in these two states are an ideal illustration of cardinal difference in wellness attention system of an industrialised state and a underdeveloped state every bit good as two different attacks to wellness attention. I will lucubrate constituents of wellness attention system, public presentation of wellness attention system, wellness attention outgos, how authorities in involved, wellness attention coverage and insurance system and a small about disposal and payment system.

Introduction:

The wellness attention system in United States can be categorized as public-private wellness attention system while India has a cosmopolitan wellness attention system.

In US, Health attention installations are mostly owned and operated by the private sector. Health insurance is chiefly provided by the private sector, with the exclusion of plans such as Medicare, Medicaid, TRICARE, SCHIP ( Children ‘s Health Insurance Program ) and VA ( Veterans Health Administration ) .

Universal wellness attention system is built around the rule of supplying cosmopolitan coverage for all members of society, uniting mechanisms for wellness funding and service proviso.

Over the past few old ages, Indian wellness attention system is in passage. With the growing of Indian economic system, more and more money is pumped into state ‘s wellness attention system. This extract of money has resulted in significant additions in wellness attention including increased life anticipation, reduced infant mortality and the obliteration of several diseases ; although these additions have been uneven across subpopulations.

A comparing between wellness attention system of US and India can cast visible radiation on the challenges that are common to both and besides highlight the alone challenges each faces.

What is Health Care System?

Health attention system is made up of persons and organisations that are involved in the bringing of wellness attention to aim population. Health attention system can besides be defined as the organisation of people, establishments and resources to present wellness attention services to run into the wellness demands of mark populations.

Components of Health Care System

The wellness attention system is made up of three interconnected constituents ; suppliers, establishments and clients.

Peoples who deliver wellness attention services – the professionals and practicians are wellness attention suppliers. Health attention suppliers are the 1s that serve the clients and supply them interventions.

The systematic agreements for presenting wellness care-the public and private bureaus that organize, program, modulate, finance and co-ordinate services are the establishments or organisations of the wellness attention system. The institutional constituent includes infirmaries, clinics and home-health bureaus ; the insurance companies and plans that pay for services like Blue Cross and Blue Shield, managed-care programs such as wellness care organisations ( HMOs ) and preferable supplier organisations ( PPOs ) ; and entitlement plans like Medicare and Medicaid.

Peoples in demand of wellness attention services are wellness attention consumers or clients. Clients receive attention from the health care supplier. They besides either pay the remunerators such as insurance companies who so pay the provider- or they pay the supplier straight, or they have their measures paid on their behalf by the authorities. Suppliers receive payment from the remunerators.

Payers are those who finance the health care. Payers can include the household of the client, the clients themselves, the insurance companies, or the authorities.

Performance of wellness attention system

Performance of wellness attention system can be measured by analyzing which system performs better and its ability to administer wellness attention to the population. While comparing wellness attention systems of US and India, I am non traveling to take into history the huge difference in resources available to each state ; alternatively I will concentrate on the comparative step of entire resources available and resources allocated to wellness attention. We will utilize traditional step of infant mortality, life anticipation and malignant neoplastic disease survivability rate of the mark population to compare wellness attention systems of US and India.

Life anticipation at birth is the mean figure of old ages to be lived by a group of people born in the same twelvemonth. This figure can be used as step of wellness of mark population.

Life anticipation in US is 78.3 old ages.

Life anticipation in India is 64.7 old ages.

Infant mortality rate is the figure of deceases of babies under one twelvemonth old per 1,000 unrecorded births. This figure is used as an index of the degree of wellness attention entree and consciousness in a state. The infant mortality rate of the universe is 49.4 harmonizing to the United Nations and 42.09 harmonizing to the CIA World Fact book.

Infant mortality rate in US is 6.3.

Infant mortality rate in India is 55.

Cancer endurance rate is the per centum of people who survive a certain type of malignant neoplastic disease for a specific sum of clip, normally measured for five old ages. This figure is good index of profusion of wellness attention system.

In US, malignant neoplastic disease testing trials like mammograms, Pap vilification, PSA showing and colonoscopy are used more often. US have plentifulness of diagnostic equipments like Enhanced imaging equipments like LIFE ( Lung Imaging Fluorescence Endoscopy ) , MRI machines and CT scanners. Abundance of these machines consequences in early showings for malignant neoplastic disease which in bend aid in early intervention of malignant neoplastic disease.

Cancer endurance rate in US is 63 % in work forces and 66 % in work forces

Cancer endurance rate in India is 30 % .

Health attention outgo

U.S. spends more money on wellness attention than any other state in the universe. In 2008, U.S. spent 16.2 % of GDP on wellness attention. This is about $ 2.3 trillion or $ 7681 per capita, of these 46 % is financed by authorities.

Healthcare is one of India ‘s largest sectors in footings of gross and employment and the sector is spread outing quickly. But it is nowhere near US wellness attention sector in footings of size. During the 1990s, Indian wellness attention grew at one-year rate of 16 % . Presently, the entire value of the sector is more than $ 34 billion. This is about $ 34 per capita, or approximately 6 % of GDP ( private outgo of 5.0 % and public outgo of 0.9 % ) , of these 19 % is financed by authorities.

Naturally, the overall criterion of wellness attention available to the bulk of population is hapless. The jobs of attention environing childbearing and maternal wellness, malnutrition in kids, all sorts of infective diseases and infestations are rampant largely among rural and urban hapless who constitute the bulk of the population.

Government Involvement in wellness attention

In the U.S. , direct authorities financess wellness attention through Medicare, Medicaid that covers senior citizens over 65, hapless and handicapped, nursing place attention and adult females with low income and State Children ‘s Health Insurance Program which covers kids in households below 200 % of poorness degree. The federal authorities besides runs the Veterans Administration, which provides medical attention to veterans, their households and subsisters.

Some 59 % of U.S. occupants have employer wellness attention coverage although this figure is diminishing Workers part varies widely in this coverage. Peoples who are self employed or unemployed have to buy their ain insurance.

U.S. federal and province authoritiess is more and more involved in U.S. wellness attention passing regardless of big private concern. In 2004, authoritiess spent 45 % of the $ 2.2 trillion spent on medical attention in 2004. The U.S. authorities spends more on wellness attention than on Social Security and national defence combined.

Beyond direct disbursement, the U.S. authorities is besides involved in wellness attention through ordinance. For illustration, the 1973 HMO Act provides for HMO by giving grants and loans.

“ The wellness attention system in India is characterized by multiple systems of medical specialty, assorted ownership forms and different sorts of bringing constructions. Public sector ownership is divided between cardinal and province authoritiess, municipal and Panchayat local authoritiess. Public wellness installations include learning infirmaries, secondary degree infirmaries, first-level referral infirmaries ( CHCs or rural infirmaries ) , dispensaries ; primary wellness centres ( PHCs ) , sub-centers and wellness stations. Besides included are public installations for selected occupational groups like organized work force ( ESI ) , defence, authorities employees, ( CGHS ) , railroads, station and telegraph and mines among others ” .

Health attention in India is cosmopolitan wellness attention system run by the component provinces and districts of India. The private sector is the dominant sector in India. In India, already 80 % of the healing attention is being sought by people from the private sector. Hospitals are run by authorities, charitable trusts and private organisations. The authorities infirmaries in rural countries are called Primary Health Center. These provide basic wellness attention. If there are patients such as snake bite or bosom onslaught, such patients are given basic drug intervention and so sent to a infirmary nearby. Hospitals are located in major metropoliss. Along with modern system of medical specialty, traditional and autochthonal medicative systems like Ayurvedic and Homeopathy systems are in pattern throughout the state.

Indian wellness attention system is run by the province authoritiess. Government infirmaries provide preliminary intervention at the disbursal of taxpayers. Primary attention is focused on immunisation, malnutrition bar, pre and postpartum attention and intervention of common complaints. Necessary drugs are offered for free in authorities infirmaries. In these infirmaries, charges for basic in-hospital check-up and intervention are much less compared to the private sector. But the private sector besides is non expensive when compared to western states. The cost for these subsidies comes from cardinal and province authoritiess.

But authorities infirmaries are non financed plenty and hold less staff. Since they do non confront competition, authorities infirmaries do non keep basic criterions of intervention. Because of these factors, many people are either forced to or prefer to see private medical practicians.

The bulk of the Indian population is unable to entree high quality health care provided by private entities as a consequence of high costs. Many are now looking towards insurance companies for supplying alternate funding options so that they excessively can afford better quality health care. 75 % of outgo on health care in India is still being met by ‘out-of-pocket ‘ consumers. Merely 10 % of the Indian population today has wellness insurance coverage. The chance remains immense for insurance suppliers come ining into the Indian health care market since Health insurance has a manner of increasing handiness to quality health care bringing for private health care suppliers for whom high cost remains a barrier.

Health Care Coverage and Access

Approximately 16 % of US population is uninsured. Besides, approximately 24 % of the U.S. population was under-insured and have insurance that hardly covers their medical demands. This leaves them unprepared for major medical disbursals. Harmonizing to some surveies, approximately 40 % of U.S. citizens do non hold sufficient wellness insurance to cover their wellness demands. 59 % of U.S. citizens have wellness insurance related to employment, 27 % have government-provided health-insurance while about 9 % purchase wellness insurance straight ( there is some convergence in these figures ) . Medical debt is the 1 of the major cause of bankruptcy in the United States. Therefore, the cost of wellness attention non the handiness of resources is major electric resistance to wellness attention entree in US.

The US federal authorities does non offer cosmopolitan wellness attention to all its citizens. But there are some publically funded wellness attention plans to assist elderly, disabled, hapless and kids. “ The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act or EMTALA ensures public entree to exigency services. The EMTALA jurisprudence forces exigency wellness attention suppliers to stabilise an exigency wellness crisis and can non keep back intervention for deficiency of grounds of insurance coverage or other grounds of the ability to pay. ” But individual having wellness attention under EMTALA still has to pay the infirmary. Hospital can prosecute any defaulter for the cost of exigency services they provided.

When it comes to healthcare, there are two faces of India: a state that provides high-quality medical attention to middle-class Indians and medical tourers and a state whose occupants have limited or no entree to quality wellness attention. Today merely 25 % of the Indian population has entree to Western ( allopathic ) medical specialty, which is practiced chiefly in urban countries, where two-thirds of India ‘s infirmaries and wellness centres are located. Many of the rural hapless must trust on alternate signifiers of intervention, such as Ayurvedic and Homeopathy.

A widespread deficiency of wellness insurance compounds the health care challenges India is confronting. Although some signifier of wellness protection is provided by authorities and major private employers, wellness insurance strategies available to the Indian populace are by and large basic and unaccessible to most people. Merely 11 % of the population has any signifier of wellness insurance coverage. For the little per centum of Indians who do hold some insurance, the chief suppliers are all authorities run insurance companies. Merely 1 % of the population was covered by private wellness insurance in 2004-05.

Because so small insurance is available to the population of India, out-of-pocket payments for medical attention amounted to 98.4 % of entire wellness outgos by families, as of the most recent ( 2001-02 ) nose count. Without insurance, the hapless must fall back to taking on debt or selling assets to run into the costs of wellness attention. It is estimated that 20 million people in India autumn below the poorness line each twelvemonth because of liability due to healthcare demands.

Availability of wellness attention resources

There is a greater handiness of wellness attention equipments and installations for trials such as mammograms and PAP vilifications ( for adult females ) , PSA showings ( for work forces ) and colonoscopies in US. Consequently, the usage of these trials is more frequent in the U.S. – for illustration, 86 per centum of U.S. adult females ages 40 to 69 rich person had a mammogram. The U.S. besides is endowed with many MRI machines and CT scanners per capita. Higher degrees of showing and equipment helps in early sensing and intervention of diseases like malignant neoplastic disease.

While no such statistics is available for India, low malignant neoplastic disease survivability rate can be attributed to scarceness of diagnostic installations in India.

“ In the United States, entree to wellness attention is chiefly determined by whether a individual can pay for the intervention, by the handiness of services in the country and by willingness of the supplier to present service at the monetary value set by the insurance company ” .

Wait clip

Waiting clip determines how fast a patient is able to acquire medical attending. Waiting clip illustrates efficiency of wellness attention system. In US, the mean wait clip was 17 yearss for an assignment with an orthopaedic sawbones. One of my friend had to wait 27 yearss to see a female sawbones.

In India, harmonizing to one study, waiting clip is a chronic job impacting infirmaries run by Indian authorities. 44 % patients wait in the infirmary for more than two hebdomads before seeing physician for preliminary diagnosing. They can non get down intervention before cognizing cause of their unwellness. Although this is non the instance in private infirmaries.

In some authorities infirmaries, patient has to wait for twosome of hebdomads for X ray or USG tests. Waiting clip for surgery could stretch up to 2 months.

In India, it is non compulsory to make a authorities infirmary in times of exigency. You can travel to your doctors ‘ private infirmary or a multi-facility infirmary run by a panel of physicians.

Besides you have an easy entree to your Primary attention doctor in instance you need to speak to him. This does non go on in U.S. You have to pass on with the nursing staff before speaking to your doctor.

India faces a immense demand spread in footings of handiness of figure of hospital beds per 1000 population. India stands merely a small over 0.7 hospital beds per 1000 population whereas U.S. has 2.5 beds per 1000 population.

Administrative operating expenses

Administration histories for 31 % of wellness attention disbursement in the United States. Some of that money goes to physicians, nurses and other medical professionals.

Private insurance in US has administrative operating expense of approximately 12 % , Medicare has administrative operating expense of approximately 4 % while Medicaid has administrative operating expense of approximately 7 % .

United States have a plan to supply prescription drugs to the hapless but it is limited. The debut of Medicare Part D in US has extended partial coverage for drugs to Medicare receivers.

Most of import difference between wellness attention systems of US and India is the much higher cost of prescription drugs in the United States. It is really expensive to acquire a intervention in United States as compared to India.

For case: cost of normal bringing in Indian private infirmaries is about Rs 6,000 ( $ 120 ) . It is free of charge in authorities infirmaries for everyone. Cesarean subdivision costs about Rs 20,000 ( $ 400 ) inclusive of anaesthesia charges and drug disbursal but you pay everything out of pocket. In U.S. cost of normal bringing is about $ 20,000. Insurance program covers most of the cost but depending on the program, patients normally receive separate measures for anesthesiology and other disbursals.

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U.S. disallows Medicare or Medicaid from negociating drug monetary values. Therefore, they can non purchase medical specialties in majority and lower monetary values.

In US, the cost of malpractice cases is 0.46 % of wellness attention disbursement which comes to $ 16 per individual each twelvemonth for the entire cost of colonies, legal fees, and insurance. “ The entire cost of supporting and settling malpractice cases in the U.S. in 2001 was about $ 6.5 billion, or 0.46 % of entire wellness disbursement. Harmonizing to some, defensive medical specialty consumes up to 9 % of American health care disbursals ” .

India has fewer physicians per capita than the United States. US have 2.3 physicians per 1,000 people in 2005 while India has 0.6 physicians per 1000 people. Physicians are paid fee for service. Now multi-facility clinics have a panel of physicians who work as infirmary employees.

There are a figure of extra costs that are significantly higher in the U.S. Government orders on maintaining the records of insured people which consequences in greater administrative attempt. Higher selling costs by insurance companies and wellness attention suppliers contribute to higher wellness attention costs.

Decision

Overall wellness attention system in India and U.S has their ain drawback and benefits. U.S. wellness attention system is better in footings of cost coverage and quality wellness attention but it is more expensive than that in India and deficiency of cosmopolitan attention affect the hapless people in U.S.

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act passed on 23rd March, 2010 authorizations cosmopolitan coverage for all. This will surely profit the hapless. “ So, by spread outing resources and doing wellness attention more low-cost and accessible to many Americans through premium revenue enhancement credits, single authorizations, the enlargement of Medicaid, new employer benefits and duties, and state-based Exchanges, the United States has taken a measure in the right direction.A Health attention reform will perfectly allow many 1000000s of Americans with what we feel is a basic human right: entree to wellness attention ” .