Factors Of Determining Pregnancy Outcome Health And Social Care Essay

Gestational age and babe ‘s weight after bringing are the best indexs to measure gestation result and a step of female parents ‘ wellness during gestation and the foetus ‘s growing and development ( Rafati, Borna, Akhavirad & A ; Fallah, 2005 ) . Preterm birth has one of the most common inauspicious gestation results. Preterm birth is defined as “ birth before 37 completed hebdomads ” ( Steer, 2005, p.1 ) . Preterm birth is a world-wide wellness issue with a pronounced difference in prevalence between developed and developing states ( Goldenberg, Culhane, Iams & A ; Romero, 2008 ; Steer ) . The planetary prevalence of preterm birth is 9.6 % . Preterm birth is really high in Africa and Asia where 85 % of planetary preterm birth occurs. Preterm birth is a major subscriber to infant mortality and morbidity. The infant mortality rate, around the universe, has non declined over the old ages ( Mathew & A ; Mac Dorman, 2007 ) . Health statistics indicate that the infant mortality rate per 1000 unrecorded births is 181 in Angola, followed by 99.7 in Pakistan. Whereas, the infant mortality rate reported per 1000 unrecorded births in United States of America is 6.89, and lower still in Sweden where the rate is 2.91 and Singapore where the rate is 2.31 ( Fikree, Azam & A ; Berendes, 2002 ; Mathew et al.2007 ) . 50 % of paediatric neurodevelopment jobs are as a consequence of preterm birth ( Goldenberg et al. ) . Babies who are born preterm are at higher hazard of short complications such as infections, hypothermia, hypotension, hypoglycaemia and long term complications such as intellectual paralysis, sightlessness, hearing loss and lower IQ. Preterm birth is a beginning of anxiousness and fiscal load on the parents ( Green, Damus, Simpson, Iams, Reece, Hobel, et al. , 2005 ; Latengresse, 2009 ; Rafati et al.2005 ; Weiss, Weiss & A ; Probe, 2010 ) .

There are many maternal factors which contribute to preterm birth and these have been extensively highlighted in literature such as low socioeconomic position, maternal age, and low degree of instruction, anaemia, unequal prenatal attention, psychosocial emphasis, obstetric complications, smoke, and maternal histories of preterm bringing ( Allen, 2001 ; Astolfi & A ; Zonta, 1999 ; Hsieh, Chen, Shau, Hsieh, Hsu, & A ; Hung, 2005 ; Ismail, Zaidi & A ; Maqbool, 2003 ; Mavalankar, Gray & A ; Trivedi, 1992 ) . The relationship of many of these factors to preterm birth is clear. However, the association between psychosocial emphasis and preterm bringing although examined for more than 25 old ages, is less clear ( Dunkel-Schetter, 1998 ; Latendresee, 2009. Research workers have indicated that psychological factors have an consequence on the gestation result, including birth weight and gestational age at bringing ( Copper, Goldenberg, Das, Elder, Swain, Norman, et al. , 1996 ; Erickson, Thorsen, Chrousos, Gridoriadis, Khongasaly, McGregor et al. , 2001 ; Ruiz, Fullerton, Brown & A ; Schoolfield, 2001, 2003 ; Hobel, Dunkel- Schetter, Roesh, Castro & A ; Arora, 1999 ) . Several surveies analyzing the relationship between maternal emphasis, depression, and preterm birth indicate a positive relationship ( Copper et al. ; Erickson et Al. ; Diego, Field, Hernandez-Reif, Schanberg, Kuhn, & A ; Gonzalez-Quintero, 2009 ; Field, Diego, Dieter, Hernadez- Reif, Schanberg, Kuhn, 2004 ; Field, Hernandez-Reif, Diego, Figueiredo, Schanberg, & A ; Kuhn, 2006 ; Jesse, Seaver & A ; Wallace, 2003 ; Hobel et al. ) . Whereas, other surveies report no statistically important relationship between emphasis and preterm birth ( Jesse, Swanson, Newton, & A ; Morrow, 2009 ; Dole, Savtiz, Picciotto, Riz, McMachon & A ; Buekens, 2003 ; Wadhwa, Sandman, Porto, Dunkel- Schetter & A ; Garite, 1993 ) which creates challenges in understanding the relationship between emphasis, depression and preterm birth. The inconsistent determination may be due to differences in specifying and mensurating emphasis, timing of emphasis measuring, sample features, and survey designs ( Gennaro & A ; Hennesey, 2003 ) . A more nonsubjective step of emphasis, such as cortisol degree, will break ease our apprehension of the relationship between emphasis, depression and preterm birth.

Stress and depression are overlapping constructs and present similar bodily symptoms like reduced appetency, weariness, perturbation in slumber, sickness, concerns, loss of appetency and hurting all over the organic structure ( Kelly, Russo & A ; Katon, 2001 ) . Such symptoms overlap with the normal symptoms of gestation and do it disputing for the wellness attention practician to place emphasis and depression in gestation ( Kelly, Russo & A ; Katon ) .

Stress and depression follow a similar biochemical form, exciting the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis ( HPA ) and the sympathetic nervous system which secretes corticotrophin-releasing-hormone ( CRH ) from hypothalamus. In response, the pituitary secretory organ secretes adrenocorticotrophic endocrine ( ACTH ) , which in bend, stimulates the secernment of hydrocortisone endocrine from adrenal cerebral mantle. The HPA axis follows a negative feedback mechanism where addition hydrocortisone endocrine suppresses the production of CRH and ACTH, therefore diminishing the hydrocortisone degree. Therefore, hydrocortisone is a biological marker of emphasis and may be a utile step of the emphasis experienced by pregnant adult females and verify the relationship between emphasis, depression and preterm birth. Cortisol is normally referred to as the “ emphasis endocrine ” as it gets activated in response to emphasize, depression and anxiousness. Stress besides produces important alterations in maternal immune response. Stress additions cytokine production, which increases susceptibleness to infection and increases the hazard of preterm birth ( Austin, Leader & A ; Reilly, 2005 ; Rich-Edwards & A ; Grizzard, 2005 ; Gennaro & A ; Hennessy, 2003 ; Giurgescu, 2009 ; Latendresse, 2009 ; Ruiz & A ; Avant, 2005 ) .

There is a high prevalence of prenatal depression ( 18 % -39.4 % ) among adult females in Pakistan ( Kazi, Fatmi, Hatcher, Kadir, Niaz, & A ; Wasserman, 2006 ; Karamaliani, Asad, Bann, Moss, Mcclure, Pasha et al. , 2009 ) . Womans who experience prenatal depression are more likely to be hapless, which impacts their ability to entree prenatal attention and intervention for depression ( Karamaliani, Bann, Pirani, Akthar, Bender, Goldenberg et al. , 2007 ) . Pakistan is a underdeveloped state with a entire population of 166 million ( Taqui, Itrat, Qidwai & A ; Qadri, 2007 ) . It is estimated that 35 % of the population has income below the poorness line ( Economy Statistics, 2001 ) . Pakistan is a male dominant society where adult females ‘s rights, wellness demands and educational chances are non given precedence ( Sen, Ostlin, George, 2007 ) . The grownup male literacy rate is 43 % , whereas grownup female literacy rate is 28 % ( Anjum, 2005 ) . Therefore, wellness for adult females is ne’er given importance ; every bit good many adult females can non afford prenatal attention. Birth of a male child is celebrated while birth of a babe miss is mourned ( Niaz, 2004 ) . Majority of the people live in joint household system which means more than two or three coevalss portion a house together ( Mason, 1992 ) and these interactions may be alone and lead to increase emphasis and depression. Therefore, the type of stressors and their relationships may be alone for adult females in Pakistan and may account for the higher rate of preterm birth seen in Pakistan. Studies undertaken in South Asia have examined the part of maternal factors like maternal instruction, age, para, birth interval and prenatal visit on preterm birth ( Ismail et al. , 2003 ; Mavalankar et al. , 1992 ) . However, none of these surveies have considered psychological factors ; moreover, none have examined the relationship between maternal emphasis, depression and preterm birth. No survey has been conducted in Pakistan to place the relationship between maternal emphasis, depression and preterm birth.

Problem Statement and Significance

My involvement in this subject country arises from my experiences and interaction with pregnant adult females coming to Aga Khan University Hospital ( AKUH ) . When a pregnant adult female comes to the prenatal clinic, she receives a physical appraisal together with measuring of tallness, weight and blood force per unit area monitoring by a nurse or technician. Subsequently, she is referred to the doctor for a elaborate appraisal which includes checking of foetal bosom sounds, vaginal scrutiny and laboratory probes. Appraisals whether by the nurse or doctor, reference merely the physical facet of attention and non the psychological, societal and cultural demands of the pregnant adult females. However, during my conversation with pregnant adult females, I discovered that adult females ‘s societal status such as poorness, unemployment, deficiency of instruction, rising prices, psychological factors like maltreatment by hubby, female parent in jurisprudence and cultural jobs related to giving birth to a miss kid are common concerns of Pakistani pregnant adult females which causes important emphasis. To the best of my cognition, this survey will be the first of its sort to analyze the relationship between psychological factors, cortisol degree and preterm birth in pregnant adult females based in Karachi, Pakistan. In add-on, the findings of this survey will foreground the importance of psychosocial factors as major subscribers among pregnant adult females. The findings will assist the medical and nursing clinicians integrate appraisal of psychosocial factors as criterion of attention provided to pregnant adult females. Early designation of emphasis and depression will allow the medical and nursing clinicians to implement steps to cut down psychological factors thereby decrease the incidence of preterm birth ( Latendresse, 2009 ) and as a consequence lessening baby mortality which is an of import 4th millenary development end. Finally, the findings of the survey will besides lend new cognition in the literature with respect to the usage of hydrocortisone as a more nonsubjective step of emphasis and depression.

Purpose of Study

The intent of the survey is to find the relationship between maternal emphasis, depression, hydrocortisone degrees and preterm birth.

Survey Hypothesiss

The hypotheses of the survey are:

a ) There is a positive relationship between maternal emphasis during gestation and cortisol degree.

B ) There is a positive relationship between hydrocortisone degree and preterm birth.

degree Celsius ) There is a positive relationship between maternal emphasis during gestation and preterm birth.

vitamin D ) There is a positive relationship between maternal depression and emphasis during gestation.

Study Questions

a ) Is there a relationship between maternal emphasis during gestation and cortisol degree?

B ) Is there a relationship between hydrocortisone degree and preterm birth?

degree Celsius ) Is there a relationship between maternal emphasis during gestation and preterm birth?

vitamin D ) Is there a relationship between maternal depression and emphasis during gestation?

Drumhead

Preterm birth is one of the most common inauspicious gestation results and is associated with infant mortality. Preterm babies are at higher hazard of hapless growing and neurodevelopmental results. Maternal hazard factors such as emphasis and depression have been associated with preterm birth. There is a high prevalence of preterm birth and infant mortality in Pakistan. Therfore ; the intent of the survey is to find the relationship between maternal emphasis, depression, cortisol degree and preterm birth. Stress and depression follow similar biochemical form, exciting the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis ( HPA ) which stimulates the secernment of hydrocortisone endocrine by the adrenal cerebral mantle that can ensue in premature birth. Cortisol degrees may be an accurate step to place emphasis and depression in pregnant adult females. Preterm birth may be minimized through early designation of emphasis and depression in pregnant adult females and execution of appropriate intercessions to cut down maternal emphasis.