Effective Hiv Campaigns Saudi Arabia Health And Social Care Essay

Current planetary HIV infection has reached an estimated 39.5 million. Dr. Ziad Memish, Deputy Minister of Health for Preventative Medicine reported 1,287 new HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia in 2009 raising the figure to 15,213. Of the new instances, 806 were foreign subjects while Saudi subjects merely 481. The Health Department stated “ 81 per centum of instances are among the 15 – 49 age group, which represents 389 instances of the 481 instances reported the last twelvemonth ” . The same study revealed that 95 % of instances in 2009 were sexually transmitted ; 3 % , through a mother-to-child transmittal ; and 2 % by endovenous drug usage ( Habib, 2010 ) .

While other states have harnessed the potency of media in distributing consciousness on HIV/AIDS, in a conservative Islamic state like Saudi Arabia, HIV intercession programmes and sexual wellness publicity seemed to be limited ( Madani et al. , 2004 ) . What exacerbated this job is that any treatment of sexually transmitted infection in Saudi Arabia is considered tabu ; therefore the lone manner out when questioned sing STI in a conservative society is denial. Therefore efficient schemes and preventative steps to cut down spread of HIV virus among Saudi striplings are warranted ( Alrajhi, 2006 ) , yet, public wellness instruction programmes recommended young person to purely adhere Islamic regulations ( Memish & A ; Osoba, 2006 ) .

Regardless of this recommendation, current Saudi wellness surveies pointed out legion hurdlings facing HIV bar runs such as concealed studies and inaccurate informations related to a high degree of HIV/AIDS stigma in Saudi civilization ( Al-Mazrou et al. , 2004 ) and hapless influence of media runs to adolescent demands and penchants ( Bertrand & A ; Anhang,2000 ) . Therefore, conservative and traditional moralss have failed at take downing HIV infection rate and uneffective public wellness instruction remain unbeneficial in forestalling HIV passage to spouse and kids of HIV positive patients ( Milder et al. 2000 ) . Though the causes of HIV are widely known globally, including insouciant sexual relationships, this spread in the instruction run has led to increased HIV transmittal and complicated intervention and bar for affected partners and kids ( Milder et al. 2000 ) .

Given the earnestness of HIV/AIDS infection and the bing spread in literature, there is an pressing demand to find the challenges of implementing effectual mass media HIV/AIDS runs in Saudi Arabia. Using the qualitative attack, experiences of HIV positive patients will be documented to determine why old and current HIV media runs were non helpful in forestalling the transmittal of HIV infection to their households. By turn toing these challenges, expected results of schemes would be to the full realised ( Druce et al. , 2006 ) . Therefore, this research will analyze the socio-cultural issues and pull appropriate media linguistic communication with extreme consideration on civilization, turning away of stigmatizing linguistic communication, and encouragement of reding for high hazard groups.


The United Nations Millennium Development Goals stated that by the terminal of 2015, HIV/AIDS along with other diseases should hold been combated. This resulted in anti- AIDS media runs which invested immense amounts of money to increase the consciousness of immature people particularly striplings on how they can efficaciously protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. Media has been taking these awareness runs by manner of docudramas, talk shows, and advertisement runs that encourage aim groups to modify their behaviors and employ safer sex patterns. Some of the runs support rubber usage, acquiring an HIV trial and sexual abstention. However, while policy shapers and wellness experts have recognised the significance of instruction, its utility is ineffectual if the mark audience has non significantly altered its behavior which is the expected desired result of this scheme ( UNICEF, 2008 ) . This survey is proposed to happen out the challenges of effectual HIV media runs. Information will be qualitative informations collected from open-ended questionnaires and multi-sectoral audience with experts bespeaking that a double information aggregation attack is in topographic point.

Research Aims

Because HIV infection is mostly influenced by human behavior, behavioral alteration has been for a long clip regarded to be indispensable in forestalling the spread of HIV infection. In countries where national HIV/AIDS epidemic were efficaciously reversed, long-run alterations in behavior is critical to its really high success. Measuring the HIV bar effectivity is in itself disputing particularly among those in well high hazard. In groking why the expected consequence did non happen is more complex than by understanding a phenomenon or event that is discernible and mensurable. The survey will be purposefully conducted to turn to to following aims:

To find the messages of media run the patients were exposed to

To determine the experiences of HIV positive patients with old and current media runs on HIV/AIDS

To depict the grounds why patients were infected despite exposure to old and current media runs on HIV/AIDS


This subdivision shall show the participants, trying frame, method chosen, ethical issues, type of informations analysis, and clip line for the research.


The survey will be conducted to selected HIV positive inmates and outpatients. These patients must be Saudi subjects, between 15-49 old ages of age, and individuals who signed an informed consent signifier. Those to be excluded are those with any medical status which may render the cardinal source unable to to the full take part in the survey or present considerable hazard on the respondent. Commissariats will be specified in the event that participants may see emotional and/or psychological hurt while reacting to a specific subject or inquiry. The participants will be given an chance to be referred to a mental wellness counselor to relieve their hurt.

Sampling frame

The sample size will be determined by the population size in the selected infirmary considered for this survey. Because the infirmary population is expected to demo big variableness, a graded random trying process will be carried out to guarantee that different classs are reasonably represented in the sample. In this sampling process, the pupil population will first divided into groups or strata each of which is homogenous with regard to the given characteristic characteristic. From each stratum, samples will be drawn at random. It is hence necessary to obtain a cross-tabulation of gender and age groups. Once this information is established, percent distribution will be computed by spliting the frequence of each class by the entire population. This will stand for per centum representativeness of each class in the cross-tabulation. After which, the sample size will be determined utilizing the Slovin ‘s expression. The per centum representativeness in each class will so be multiplied to the sample size to find the figure of respondents under each stratum in the cross-tabulation. Each pupil will be assigned a figure and utilizing a tabular array of random Numberss, the samples will be drawn without replacing.

Method used

The survey will obtain informations through open-ended questionnaires designed to supply penetration on the challenges of implementing effectual media runs of HIV/AIDS bar. Open-ended inquiries will include messages of the type of media run patients were exposed to, experiences with old and current media runs on HIV/AIDS, and grounds why patients were infected despite exposure to old and current media runs on HIV/AIDS. To vouch the namelessness and confidentiality, important others and go toing nurses will non be allowed to be present during the questionnaire disposal and completion.

Several steps will be undertaken so that the patient ‘s privateness is ensured while replying the questionnaires. This will likewise warrant that the respondents will wholly and truthfully finish the questionnaire. In making so, findings and decisions obtained will non be jeopardised. Before respondents will finish the questionnaires, they will be briefed as to the aims of the research and explained how the sampling method was carried out. Both the research worker and an helper will be present during questionnaire completion to guarantee that questions or concerns sing the questionnaire will be instantly entertained. Therefore, if the respondent is unsure about a certain point in the questionnaire, the point will so be read by the research worker or helper from his personal transcript and help the pupil in groking the point in inquiry. When the respondents have wholly answered the questionnaires, they will be asked to turn up them in order to hide their replies and raise their custodies if they had finished make fulling out the questionnaires. The research worker or helper will so near the respondent and topographic point the booklet questionnaire inside the envelope. After recovering the questionnaires, envelopes will so be sealed.

Responses to the open-ended questionnaires will be prepared and presented to officers of the Health Department, NGOS, and group of media practicians who made the HIV/AIDS bar runs. Using their responses, the research worker will ease a treatment sing the spreads and challenges faced by the Health Department, NGOs, and media practicians in implementing effectual media runs on HIV/AIDS bar.

Ethical issues

In this survey, beneficence will be applied which protects participants from injury and maintain hazard degrees to a lower limit. Confidentiality, privateness, and namelessness will besides be exercised. The research worker will do equal commissariats to guarantee that participant ‘s individualities will non be revealed during the class of the research or airing of survey results. Then, the pupils will be asked to make full the Informed Consent connoting that their engagement in the survey is voluntary. It shall besides be emphasised that they will non have any pecuniary wagess as a consequence of their engagement. Finally, the research workers will guarantee that the execution of the survey will continue the construct of justness or the just and just distribution of respondents. Respondents will non be choosing on the footing of their handiness or their being easy to act upon.

Type of informations analysis to be used

Qualitative informations will be carefully analysed utilizing descriptive statistics by calculating for the proportion of the responses. Therefore, the most dominant media message on HIV/AIDS bar, experiences of HIV positive patients with old and current media runs on HIV/AIDS, and grounds why despite of media exposure, they are still infected with HIV. Based on the consequences of this survey, a more improved media run can be created.

Time line of the research

Before the behavior of survey, permission will foremost be sought from the Dean of the Graduate School after blessing of the research proposal by the Oral Examination Panel of the University. After which another missive will be addressed to the infirmary where the survey will be conducted. The research worker will put a meeting with the infirmary disposal to discourse inside informations of the survey. Once agenda for informations assemblage is finalised, list of HIV positive inmates will be procured so that graded random sampling will be done prior to the existent information assemblage. All the selected HIV positive patients will have written presentments that they will be portion of the hospital-based study. In coordination with the infirmary disposal, the research worker together with an helper will personally administrate the open-ended questionnaires which will so be instantly retrieved to guarantee 100 % response rate. One hebdomad after, a meeting will be set with the wellness section, NGOs, and media practicians to farther confirm the challenges confronted in implementing mass media campaigns refering to HIV/AIDS bar based on their field experiences.

Table 1. Proposed timeline for the research




3 hebdomads

Behavior of studies and

multi-sect unwritten meeting

8 hebdomads

Datas Analysis

3 hebdomads

Manuscript Writing

2 hebdomads


16 hebdomads ( 4 months )

Stakeholder or community engagement

Representatives from the wellness section charged with the undertaking of making media runs on HIV/AIDS bar, NGOs and media practicians will be invited to formalize the informations based on the open-ended questionnaires in a procedure known as triangulation. From cognizing these challenges, HIV/AIDS bar could be modified and re-aligned to see the demands of HIV positive patients. A figure of runs have been successful because they had full use on available resource pooling with others in footings of stuff and proficient expertness. It is for this ground that these bureaus will be included in the survey. In Saudi Arabia, stigmatization has formed a important barrier to conformity of HIV-related wellness behavior. Therefore intercessions could be formulated to turn to the drivers of societal stigma in Saudi Arabia which are deficiency of HIV/AIDS consciousness, values and frights.

Importance of the research

While the HIV/AIDS epidemic has grown in the last 25 old ages, legion research workers have come to oppugn whether important and long-run behavioral alterations could be achieved to change by reversal HIV/AIDS by the terminal of 2015. It was suggested that factors non associated with the scheduling of the bar runs could account for favorable paradigm displacements noted in other states. However, recent surveies have shown that hazard behaviors have escalated in certain scenes where successful HIV/AIDS bar were first known, naming sustainability of these behavioral alterations into inquiry and underlining the demand to better understand how behavior could alter in the face of this ever-changing and germinating planetary epidemic. Media runs have been in assorted formats- play, seriess, docudramas, panel interviews among others. Surveies have shown that publicity of branded programmes and merchandises along with specific service bringing points are more successful in conveying about the expected result in contrast to generic messages. Small media such as circulars, booklets, and postings which are locally distributed are found to be sustainable. However, usage of mass media would give optimum consequences when community intercessions are reinforced ( Global HIV Prevention Working Group, 2008 ) .

Developing a communications run centred on HIV/AIDS bar involves strategic planning and must be aligned towards accomplishing mensurable and specific results. The success of any run should critically see understanding the specific audience targeted for the run including what scheme will be most effectual, pretesting the messages, and alteration of messages based on consequences of post-test, and calculating for its cost-effectiveness. Communications run on HIV/AIDS bar have mensurable and executable ends, promote behaviour permutation alternatively of riddance, supports an environment that promotes behavioral alteration, extremely cost-efficient, really accessible to intended audience, and considers both legal and socio-cultural parametric quantities that hinder alteration. Challenges identified by literature include stigma attached to sexually familial infections, educational degree of clients, deficient preparation of wellness counsellors, deficiency of installations, staffing, supplies, and logistical jobs ( Druce et al. , 2006 ) .