In the Iron Age most European communities would hold been linked together to some grade and this can be seen as a continuance of contact established during the Bronze Age ( Piggott 1965: 174 ) . Peaceful trade between these communities, for goods that were either a basic necessity or perchance merely desirable, would go on for a figure of grounds, none of them reciprocally sole, such as development, cross-cultural interchange or reciprocally good exchange ( Woolf 1993: 211 ) . When sing what archeology can state us about this trade, harmonizing to Collis ( 1984: 15 ) , there is a common premise that it divides into the three spacial forms of long distance, inter-regional and local trade However, this distinction may merely be a modern concept that would non hold been recognised by Iron Age communities ( Wells 2008: 356-8 ) . This essay will utilize some of the material civilization available from entombments, caches and colonies to analyze each form in bend looking at the objects traded, how trade was organised, why and who was involved in an effort to measure whether or non the archeological grounds supports this mostly economic theoretical account.
Before any appraisal can be undertaken it is of import to specify the footings Trade and Iron Age as they are used in this essay. Trade is used here to depict any dealing intended to get goods non available in the local environment, which are either needed for basic physical demands or are desirable, through purchase, swap or exchange for other goods ( Wells 2008: 357 ) . The procedure of goods or gift exchange was besides in operation at this clip and this term is used to depict the distribution of goods as a societal interaction between communities aimed at increasing wealth, prestigiousness or position ( Wells 2008: 356-7 ) . From the available grounds it is non ever possible to state the difference between these two systems and in fact Iron Age communities may non hold differentiated so the two interactions can be interpreted as organizing a continuum with traded goods being passed out from Centres of trade to the rural fringe via exchange ( Wells 2008: 358 ) .
The Iron Age was widespread across Central Europe by the seventh century BC and lasted until the Roman conquering in the first century BC. Traditionally It is divided into two stages, the Early Iron Age from 750-450BC, which is besides termed Hallstatt after the type site in Austria, and the Late Iron Age from 450-50BC besides known as La Tene from the type site in Switzerland ( Darvill 2008: 215 ) . This essay will utilize Early or Late Iron Age when mentioning to clip periods, Hallstatt or La Tene when mentioning to artefact manners.
Long distance trade is the easiest to observe in the archeological record through the designation of foreign or alien goods ( Collis 1984: 15-16 ) . In the Early Iron Age trade was stimulated by the metal utilizing province societies of the Mediterranean, chiefly Greece and Etruria, as they sought beginnings of the basic natural stuffs like Sn, Cu, Fe and salt to fuel their turning economic systems ( Collis 1984: 15 ) . Apart from Baltic gold and Mediterranean coral Europe had a plentiful supply of these basic altogether stuffs locally available so the chief import was in manufactured goods like the Attic clayware, Greek amphorae and Etruscan bronze vass found at the Vix grave on Mont Lassois in France and the Heuneburg in Germany. These demonstrate trade as opposed to a societal bond but are besides declarative of links between the elites of Western Europe and the Mediterranean for the supply of banqueting equipment and vino ( Wells 1995: 231 ) . The presence of luxuriant Gravess with rich gatherings of local merchandises found in context with imported objects such as those found at Durrnberg in Austria which contained glass vass from Italy, blade grips from Africa and vass from Slovenia or sculpt 6 at Hohmichele on the Heuneburg, which contained silk fabric from the far east, are declarative of long distance trade in prestigiousness or luxury goods instead than societal interaction ( Wells 2008: 363 ) .
Colonies, such as Marseille founded by the Phocaeans in 600BC, were established by the Mediterranean societies to open up new trading markets ( Milisauskas 1978: 270 ) as can be evidenced by the trade in vino and luxury points up the Rhone vale to cardinal Europe ( Greene 1990: 116 ) , although non all Mediterranean imbibing cogwheel found in cardinal Europe came via this path. Items such as the beaker flagons found in the Vix grave may hold come via alpine paths from the Etruscan controlled Po vale ( Cunliffe 1999: 62 ) . Correspondingly the Early Iron Age saw the rise of European towns like the Heuneburg and Mont Lassois, with big populations and high degrees of production and trade, which acted as nucleus Centres in local countries importing groceries and natural stuffs from rural fringe for inter-regional exchange and administering finished goods locally ( Wells 1980: 46-47 ) . In the Late Iron Age these towns were replaced by oppida like Manching in Bavaria and Bibracte in France which fulfilled a similar function. These oppida were besides used as ports of trade and may hold been established to pull and increase trade instead than to curtail or command it ( Woolf 1993: 211 ) . Following the foundation of the settlements banqueting and imbibing artifacts from Greek and Etruscan workshops appear in Gravess of the European nobility bespeaking the presence of good established merchandising links between cardinal Europe and the Mediterranean ( Cunliffe 2010: 462 ) . It could hence be assumed that that this elect nobility were in control of trade nevertheless there is grounds at the Heuneburg and Narbo for the presence of a merchandiser category who bring vino and other Mediterranean goods to the native markets and interchange them for natural stuffs, slaves and, as their population grew, groceries ( Nash 1984: 92-94 ) . This tendency continues into the Late Iron Age, when following a suspension after Greece turns due easts for trade in the fifth Century BC, contact with the Mediterranean is renewed in 2nd century BC, and there is grounds from Magdalensberg near Salzburg for trade being in the custodies of Italian merchandisers with no grounds for native bargainers ( Collis 2002: 31 ) . Not all long distance trade was in luxury or prestige goods. The possible for interchange of rites, thoughts, engineerings or even specializers should non be ignored nor should the smaller, domestic or lifestyle merchandises like broachs and pins. It may be that the European elite in the towns and oppida acted as a nucleus for the redistribution of these trade goods in their local country or inter-regionally as the distribution of artifacts made from a assortment of natural stuffs and affecting the usage of many engineerings can be taken as bespeaking a defined societal hierarchy within a settled society ( Phillips 1980: 266 ) .
Inter-regional trade, or instead at this degree exchange, can be described as the motion of goods between communities that portion cultural similarities ( Collis 1984: 15-16 ) . For illustration, in the Late Iron Age objects found in Gravess from France, Austria and Bohemia and ornamented in the La Tene manner would look to bespeak a societal nexus between regional elites who express their cultural similarity and individuality through material civilization ( Wells 2008: 363 ) . The objects exchanged may be similar in signifier to those produced in the local environment and this exchange is traditionally seen as a societal instead than economic event. To this terminal there is no merchandiser category involved in the dealing as it is based on household and kin relationships ( Collis 1984: 15-16 ) . Happening more in the Early instead than the Late Iron Age it is characterized by gift exchange between the powerful members of equal societies perchance stand foring non merely trade but besides testimonial, ransom, dowry payments or even marrying gifts ( Wells 1995: 239 ) . This may besides stand for the pattern of reciprocality whereby goods were given as a societal interaction between elect members of society, non in the outlook of immediate exchange, but instead as a long term investing whereby reciprocation was made by the proviso of services, labour, goods or even trading pacts ( Nash 1984: 93-4 ) .
Stretching Europe somewhat to include south-west Britain will let the trade between Alet in France and Hengistbury Head to be used as a instance survey. The find of an Fe ground tackle and concatenation dating from the first century BC at Bulbury in Dorset can be interpreted as supplying grounds for nautical trade between Continental Europe and Britain ( Cunliffe 2010: 480 ) . Hengistbury Head was a designated port of trade used by the local elite to command the flow of goods both into and out of Britain whilst using the foreign trade relationship to increase their advantage over their regional fringe ( Nash 1984: 93 ) . Goods such as Fe from the Hengistbury country, non-ferrous metals from the Mendips and Kimmeridge shale were exchanged with Alet, via a short draw sea traversing to the Channel Islands and thence to the port of Reginca, for Mediterranean clayware, prestige finished goods and vino ( Languet 1984: 73 ) . This is evidenced by the presence of Dressel 1A amphorae, glass and all right ware clayware from Northern Italy at Hengistbury Head and alterations in the local industry of ceramics, bronze and Fe artifacts that are declarative of inter-regional exchange of thoughts and engineerings ( Cunliffe 1984: 8 ) . Although this short scope, cross-channel contact was likely based on a repeating demand between the several nucleus communities it could besides be interpreted as a core-periphery form of trade whereby Continental Europe is the nucleus providing finished goods and south-west Britain is the fringe supplying natural stuffs in exchange ( Nash 1984: 92 ) . There is grounds from the huge sums of Armorican clayware at Hengistbury Head that the Armoricans themselves may hold lived at that place, at least for portion of the twelvemonth, and acted as Continental agents interceding with the local communities for the exchange of goods ( Cunliffe 2010: 479 ) . The cache from Llyn Fawr in Wales could supply grounds of this interaction as it contains Hallstatt C type artifacts, such as Fe blades and bronze phonograph record for harness ornamentation, that are similar to types found in Belgium and southern Germany and could hold been shipped via Alet to Hengistbury Head before being exchanged locally ( Cunliffe 2010: 456 ) . Thus a instance can be made for sing Hengistbury Head as the nucleus for its immediate environment with the local rural communities as the fringe.
Local trade is likely the least studied of all the forms of trade as there is a traditional premise that the mechanisms used are already good understood ( Collis 1984: 15 ) . The interaction between local communities was perchance based on reciprocality with the exchange of finished goods for services, labour or natural stuffs. The oppida of the late Iron Age, like Manching and Bibracte, and the towns of the Early Iron Age, like Mont Lassois and the Heuneburg, were non merely trading Centres but were besides fabricating and production sites making their ain finished goods which is evidenced by Gravess incorporating bronze objects, clayware and glass beads that reflect local forms of trade. These manufactured goods may hold formed portion of a core-periphery trade with smaller local communities for nutrient and forestry merchandises ( Wells 1995: 236 ) . Increases in rural production, which created a local ego sufficiency and provided a greater excess for trade, engendered the conditions that allowed for a big scale societal administration with luxuriant hierarchies. The emergent elite in these hierarchies were able to prosecute in local trade for a broad scope of goods which could besides be used to further a regular contact with other regional elites for exchange of trade goods, engineerings and thoughts ( James and Rigby 1997: 76-7 ) . Although they are classified as elites it is possible that persons acted as & A ; acirc ; ˆ?centres & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ for trade and the rich entombments in which we find munificent prestigiousness and luxury goods, such as the Etruscan beaked flagons found in the in-between Rhine country of Europe and dated to the Late Iron Age ( Cunliffe 1999: 63 ) , indicate wealth but possibly non elect position ( Collis 1984: 16 ) . After all non all trade was in luxury or prestigiousness goods and the presence of non-elite objects like cosmetic pins and broachs, such as the bronze calf bone found in the female grave at Vix ( Wells 2008: 364 ) , in a local country can be taken as representative of local trade or exchange webs. These socio-economic systems besides saw elect leaders give gifts of lesser value to those lower down the hierarchy in order to retain position and power ( Cunliffe 2999: 61 ) . The spread of points like the long slashing Grundelingen blades can be explained by simple local exchange mechanisms supplying illustrations that are so copied ( Cunliffe 2010: 449 ) and at Alb-Salem in W & A ; Atilde ; ?rttemberg there have been found ceramics of a peculiar size and ornament distributed across an country that could be walked in a twenty-four hours ( Wells 2008: 361 ) . In the late Iron Age coin grounds appears to bespeak that specializer workers, who mass produce goods and administrate their ain commercial facets of trade, replace control by elites, ab initio in their local country but finally along the whole trade good supply concatenation ( Wells 1995: 240-1 ) . This is farther evidenced by the visual aspect of mass produced Roman wares in Gravess where they replace alone foreign imports and is paralleled by a decline in the function played by elites and societal webs as they are superseded by professional merchandisers in a globalised economic market ( Wells 1995: 240-2 ) .
The available archeological grounds is unfastened to equivocal reading nevertheless this essay has argued that it would look to back up the spacial theoretical account of long distance, inter-regional and local forms of trade even though this is a modern economic concept. These forms should non be seen as being reciprocally sole but instead as strands in a complex system of exchange mechanisms that reflect societal interaction between communities, that have a symbolic every bit good as an economic dimension whilst traveling trade goods, every bit good as thoughts and engineerings, bi-directionally around Europe and the Mediterranean ( Renfrew 1993: 214 ) . It should besides be borne in head that intangibles such as slaves, groceries, fells and runing Canis familiariss will go forth no hint in the archeological record even though they were capable to the same trade and exchange systems ( Cunliffe 1984: 4 ) . However, without the benefit of written beginnings to heighten our apprehension, what the grounds can non turn out is how the Iron Age communities themselves regarded trade. It is a possibility that they did non distinguish by part or distance but alternatively regarded all trade as local and based on simple exchange systems no affair what the trade good or how far it had travelled ( Wells 2008: 358 ) . As the Iron Age came to a stopping point, with low value mintage being adopted and Rome going predominant in Europe and the Mediterranean, there was a move to a globalised, impersonal, trade good market that removed the demand for a distinction in trading forms. The outgrowth of standardized weights, steps and monetary values rendered redundant the demand for swap and exchange systems with a professional Italian merchandiser category commanding trade and replacing local elites who were subsumed into the Roman provincial authorities procedure ( Collis 2002: 30 ) .